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ANTH 1010H (15)
Chapter 7

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthropology Chapter 7: The Origin of Modern Humans The oldest known fossil of a modern human was discovered at the site of Herto, Ethiopia, and was dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago. Fossils of modern humans dated to between 120,000 and 70,000 years ago have been discovered at the South African sites of Klasies River Mouth and Border Cave. The Middle Stone Age refers to the archaeological period of the earliest modern humans in Africa. The Middle Stone Age began between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago and ended around 40,000 years ago. The middle stone age includes a number of distinct industries, including the Aterian, Sangoan/Lupemban and the Howieson’s Poort. Bone harpoons have been found at the middle Stone Age site of Katanda, in the D.R. Congo. At Blombos Cave, a piece of ochre with incised decorations was found in a middle Stone Age level dated to 77,000 years ago. Modern human skeletons have been found in the middle Palaeolithic levels of Qafzeh and Skhul Caves in Israel. The Upper Palaeolithic is the archaeological period that saw the earliest occupation of Europe by modern humans. The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition is marked by a dramatic change in material. At the site of St. Césaire in France, a Neanderthal was found and dated to
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