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Chapter 1

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University of Lethbridge
BIOL 2000
Joseph Rasmussen

Chapter 1: Genetic Approach to Biology Definitions:  Gene: the fundamental unit of heredity  Allele: a form of a gene  Mutation: A change in DNA sequence  Genotype: the specific allelic composition of a cell or organism  Phenotype: the detectable manifestation of a particular genotype Organisms:  Give rise to like organisms  In unicellular organisms, responses to different input possible  Multicellular organisms cells are derived from a single cell develop complex and diverse structures  Evolve over time What key properties must hereditary material posses?  Ability to replicate faithfully inheritance  Provide an extraordinary diversity of immolation that can be translated into cellular structure and function  Ability t change over time  Inherited units= genes  Each DNA strand is the template for the production of a new strand- result is two DNA molecules identical to the origin o Provide an extraordinary diversity of information o Four kinds of nucleotides (A,T,G,C) within a DNA molecule  Mutation combined with natural selection allows for changes over time o Human and chimps differ in 1% of DNA o The genomes of humans and chimpanzees differ by only a small percentage of nucleotides o Mutation generates new forms (alleles) of genes  Hereditary material (DNA) posses 3 key properties: o DNA replication allows faithful replication that neables inheritance of i
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