FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Backward Chaining, Reinforcement, Rein

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
1
Chapter 11
A behavioral chain, also called a stimulus-response chain, is a consistent sequence of
stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in which the last
response is typically followed by reinforcement.
In a behavioral chain, each response produces a stimulus that serves as an S D for the next
response (and, as will be discussed later, a conditioned reinforcer for the previous
response).
The stimulus-response connections are the "links" that hold the chain together.
if any response is so weak that it fails to be evoked by the S D preceding it, the next S D will
not be produced and the rest of the chain will not occur.
The reinforcer at the end of a chain maintains the stimuli in the chain as effective SDs for
the responses that follow them (and as will be described later, as effective conditioned
reinforcers for the responses that precede them).
not all behavioral sequences are behavioral chains.
It is not made up of a consistent series of stimuli and responses that occur closely in time
and for which each stimulus (except the last) is an S D for the next response.
METHODS FOR TEACHING A BEHAVIORAL CHAIN
The three major methods of teaching a behavioral chain are the total-task presentation
method, the backward-chaining method, and the forward-chaining method.
total-task presentation method, an individual attempts all of the steps from the
beginning to the end of the chain on each trial and continues with total task trials until that
person learns the chain
Prompting is provided at each step as needed, and a reinforcer follows the correct
completion of the last step.
Backward chaining gradually constructs the chain in a reverse order from that in which
the chain is performed. Backward chaining has been used in numerous programs, including
teaching various dressing, grooming, work, and verbal behaviors to individuals with
developmental disabilities
Thus, when one uses backward chaining, the reinforcement of the last step in the presence
of the appropriate stimulus, over trials, establishes that stimulus as a discriminative
stimulus for the last step and as a conditioned reinforcer for the next-to-last step.
Thus, the power of the positive reinforcer that is presented at the end of the chain is
transferred up the line to each S D as it is added to the chain.
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Document Summary

A behavioral chain, also called a stimulus-response chain, is a consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in which the last response is typically followed by reinforcement. In a behavioral chain, each response produces a stimulus that serves as an s d for the next response (and, as will be discussed later, a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response). It is not made up of a consistent series of stimuli and responses that occur closely in time and for which each stimulus (except the last) is an s d for the next response. Prompting is provided at each step as needed, and a reinforcer follows the correct completion of the last step. Backward chaining gradually constructs the chain in a reverse order from that in which the chain is performed. Backward chaining has been used in numerous programs, including teaching various dressing, grooming, work, and verbal behaviors to individuals with developmental disabilities.

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