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Chapter 12

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HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Chapter 12: The European Empires 1. European Encounters a. 16 century was all about exploration b. to pay for eastern goods, especially spices, western gold and silver flowed steadily eastward c. precious metal supplied dwindled so the economy slowed d. Africa and a passage to india i. The portugese made the first dramatic breakthroughs in exploration and colonization (this was in the Azores and Madeira islands) ii. Their caravels were ideal for ocean travel, and their navigators were among the most skillful in the world iii. Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) led the Portguese south to the equator iv. In 1487, Dias rounded the tip of Africa and opened the eastern African shores to Portuguese traders v. Da Gama (1460-1524) rounded the Cape of Good Hope and crossed into the Indian Ocean—he returned to Lisbon in 1499 with the most valuable spices of the East vi. Later expiditions followed, one of which accidently touched South American coast of Brazil which was soon consumed within the Portugeuse dominions vii. The exploration of the African coast also brought the Portuguese into contact with Mulsim traders who developed connections between North Africa and the middle of the continent—they bardered for gold, ivory, exotic spices, and slaves viii. By the 1470s it was estimated that over a thousand African slaves a year were being imported into Portugal ix. The Portuguese controlled Ceylon and Indonesia; the precious Spice Islands from which came cloves, cinnamon and pepper— overnight, Lisbon became one of the trading capitols of the world, tripling in population between 1500 and 1550 e. Mundus Novus i. Columbus believed the world was round—he calculated that a westward course would be shorter and less expensive than the path the Portugese took around Africa ii. He sailed westward in 1492 and on 12 October he landed in the Bahamas on an island he named San Salvador iii. Rivalries between England and Portugal intensified after 1500, when the Portuguese began exploring the coast of Brazil iv. In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas had confined Portugals right to the eastern route to the Indies as well to any undiscovered ladns east of any imaginery line fixed west of the Cape Verde Islands— this entitled Portugal to Brazil v. In 1513, de Balboa (1475-1517) crossed the Isthmus of Panana and became the first European to view the Pacific Ocean vi. In 1519, Ferninand Magellan (1480-1521), a Portuguese mariner in the esrvice of Spain, set sail in pursuit of Columbus’ goal of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing westward—he died, but his navigator, Elcano (1476-1526), completed the first circumnavigation of the globe 1. It took 3 years and one month, he returned to Spain with a single ship and 18 survivors out of 280 2. He had spices of greater value than the cost of the expedition 3. He provided practical proof that the world was round and of the vastness of the Pacific Ocean and how uneconomical it was to get to the Indies in that fashion 4. This was the end of the first stage of the exploration of the New World f. The Spanish conquests i. Cortes (1485-1547) opened the next stage of Spanish discovery; he participated in the conquest of Cuba, and sought an indepdent command to lead an expedition into the hinterland of Central America ii. Cortes gathered 600 men and sailed across the Gulf of Mexico in 1519 and established a fort at Vera Cruz, where he garrisoned 200 men—with 400 soldiers, he marched 250 miles through jungles and mountains before seeing the first signs of the Aztec civilization iii. The conquest of the Aztecs took nearly a year and remains an overwhelming feat of arms—nearly 100,00 natives from the tribes that the Aztecs had conqured supported the Spanish assault iv. By 1522, Cortes was master of an area larger than all of Spain; in 30 years, a population of 25 million had been reduced to 2 million due to exposure to European disease like smallpox, typhoid and measles g. The legacy of the encounters th i. By the 17 century, there was beginning to be a worldwide trading marketplace ii. The Columbian exchange was a transfer of microbes, animals and plants 1. Issues were public health due to travelling disease 2. Horses, pigs, cows and other domesticated animals were brought that wre unknown in the Americas 3. Beginning in 1550, European naturalists catalogued thousands of unknown species, a small number of which were suited to the different climates and soils of Europe 2. The Formation of States a. Eastern configurations i. Under the Ivan the Great III, Muscovy expanded to the north and west ii. The rise of Muscovy 1. External threats had diminished—the deterioration of the Mongol Empire, which had dominated south-central Russia, allowed Ivan to escape the york of Mongol rule that the Russian princes had worn for centuries 2. The fall of Constantinople made Muscovy the heir to eastern Christendom, successor to the Roman and Byzantine empires 3. Ivan the Great was fortunate in having no competitors for his throne iii. the military and political achievements of Ivan the Great were furthered by his son Vasili and his more famou
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