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Location of a Sound.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2390
Lana Trick

Cues to Location of a Sound 11/15/2012 4:29:00 PM Cues to Location of a Sound (2 dimensions)  Auditory space: extends all around your head in all directions  3 dimensions o Azimuth: left to right o Elevation: up and down o Distance: close and far  Different in vision in that when a sound is heard, it stimulates a cochlea based on the sound frequency and gives no information about sound localization Inter-aural Time Differences: (ITD)  When you have something that comes from right, hits right ear before left ear  Compare time in which a sound hits left ear and right ear  If comes from straight ahead or behind o Hits both ears at same time  This cue works best for… o Low frequencies  Because time between peak and bottom is longer time therefore easier to tell (more time) Inter-aural Intensity / Level Differences: (ILD)  Differences in sound pressure level of the sound reaching the two ears  If it comes from right, it is louder on the right  If it from straight ahead or behind, equally as loud on either side  This cue works best for… o Best for high frequencies  Have sound shadow created by head (blocks out some of the sound)  Causes decrease in intensity on far side of head  When you have long wavelengths (lower frequencies), sound can go around you and you cannot tell differences in intensity Coping with Ambiguity:  How can I tell if it is in front of me or behind me? o Turn your head, changes your angle  How can I tell if it is high or low when right in front / behind me? o Cause by cone of confusion  When two sound sources have the same ILD and ITD o Solved by monaural cues Monaural Cues  A cue that depends on input from only 1 ear  Primary cue is spectral cue o Information from localization is contained in differences in distribution (spectrum) of frequencies that reach the ear from different locations
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