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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

PSYC2650 Textbook Notes CH 5 (pg. 148-66) Maintenance rehearsal – simply focus on to-be-remembered items with little thought about what they mean/how they’re related to each other o Rote mechanical process recycles items in working memory by repeating them no long term benefits (ineffective at promoting memory) Relational/elaborative rehearsal – involves thinking about what the to-be-remembered items mean and how they’re related to each other and to other things already known o Superior for establishing info in memory promotes memory only if it’s the right sort of rehearsal  if you spend many seconds thinking about something, but think about it only in a mindless mechanical fashion (i.e. through maintenance rehearsal), item will not be established in memory o i.e. have encountered the penny many times but don’t know details of it o greater levels of brain activity (esp. Hippocampus and regions of prefrontal cortex) associated with greater probabilities of retention later on  learning ≠ passive activity needed to lodge info into long-term memory - study: Shallow processing – participants engage info in relatively superficial fashion Incidental learning – learning in absence of any intention to learn (participants don’t know being tested in memory) Intentional learning – participants know they’re tested on memory learn on purpose “Medium processing” – i.e. make judgements about rhyme Deep processing – think about meaning of items o in recall, participants in deep processing + no intention to learn perform quite well; shallow processing + no intention to learn = rather poorly  attention to meaning pays off for recall; attention to surface characteristics (?) produces little memory benefit  moderate levels of processing (attention to rhyme) produce moderate level of recall performance deeper processing = better memory  intention to learn adds nothing - difference between instruction and self-instruction is irrelevant to performance o results from memorizing condition will be variable depending on how participants self- instruct must know to self-instruct to pay attention to meaning (deep processing)  less-than-optimal strategy = lower level performance o intention matters no intention to learn = maintenance processing; intention to learn = best thought strategy affects quality of memory  intentional encoding usually = better memory than incidental encoding (indirect)  approach > intent - deep processing may influence subsequent events attention to meaning = recall by virtue of facilitating retrieval of memory later - one of main roles of memory acquisition = lay groundwork for memory retrieval o many ways to search through memory depend on memory connections allow one memory to trigger another  attention to meaning involves thinking about relationships - words more likely to remembered if appear with rich, elaborate sentences  deep and elaborate processing = much better recall (vs. just deep processing) connections Retrieval paths – paths (connections) than guide thoughts toward content to be remembered  less likely for impoverished sentences fewer connections = narrower set of retrieval paths - sometimes memory connections link to-be-remembered material to other info already in memory o if any part of material recalled, all will be recalled o (Katona) Organization = memory connections  Easily remember material when find or impose organization on it Mnemonic strategies – techniques to “improve” memory; some modern, most old (ancient Greece) o Most involve principle that organization helps “external” organization can be imposed on material + same memory benefit Peg-word system – well-organized structure of “peg words” i.e. form association between item needed to memorize + rhyme/visualization  Helps remember individual items in specific sequence o Contribute to theoretical understanding of memory; effective o i.e. first-letter mnemonic (i.e. ROY G BIV) o downside: typically focus on just one aspect of material to be remember (i.e. first letter) lose aspects of other material to be remembered  attention focused on 1 or 2 memory connections - optimal organization of complex materials generally dependent on understanding remember best what we understand - crucial for predicting success of memory: maintenance rehearsal, pay attention to/think about meaning, understand material, find unifying theme in (make connections/organize) material - contribution to own learning requires prior knowledge (framework) CH 6 (pg. 167-84) - learning = making connections between newly acquired material and other representations already in memory many new knowledge “findable” later on o connections = retrieval paths have starting and ending points State-dependent learning – memory is best if environment (i.e. olfactory, land vs. water, quiet vs. loud, different rooms visual appearance) = same during memory retrieval as during initial learning o one study showed that psychological context (vs. physical) is what really matters  recall performance best if someone’s state (internal or external) at time of testing matches state at time of learning  state = perception? Context reinstatement – improved memory performance if we re-create the context what was in place during learning o context has effect only because it influences how person thinks about materials to be remembered thoughts + perspective during learning = important for memory o thinking about meaning (vs. sound; at time of learning) = better memory at recall  thinking about meaning = better if cues provided concerned meaning  thinking about sound at time of learning = better memory with cue concerning word’s sound  advantage for thinking about meaning + advantage for matched learning and test conditions  match effects > levels-of-processing effect “deep but unmatched” < “not so deep, but matched” advantage for deep-processing overturned - what is preserved in memory = some record of the list of words + set of connections established in thinking about the list influences search for target info o extra material can also change meaning of what is remembered consequences for remembering the past Encoding specificity – what one encodes = specific not just physical stimulus as encountered; stimulus (i.e. word, sentence, pattern, etc.) + context (what one thinks and understands about the stimulus) o memory hint effective only if congruent with what was stored in memory o people learn whole, not parts o stimulus-as-understood = stimulus with appropriate mental context  (visual) stimulus with particular figure/ground organizationmemory of this doesn’t match test stimulus (different figure/ground organization)  Don’t recognize same stimulus as familiar (i.e. vase-faces illusion) o In learning new material, establish memory that can be retrieved in certain way, from certain perspective perspective/understanding changes = original memory not retrieved  “good learning” may depend on later events whether meaning prominent during retrieval Recall – presented with some cue that identifies info we seek come up with info on our own o Requires memory search, locate info within memory depends on memory connections o More likely if during original learning you think about relationships between materials to be remembered and other things already known  Or between materials to be remembered and other aspects of learning environment Recognition – info presented to us must decide whether it’s sought-after info or not o “hybrid”; can follow same rules as recall by forming relevant connections during learning  Sometimes work differently Source memory – recollection of source of current knowledge o Without familiarity = less common  Familiarity attribution (to earlier encounter)  Can have either (source memory/familiarity) without the either o Distinguishable biologically “remember” and “know” judgements depend on different brain areas  Heightened activity in hippocampus when “remember” crucial for source memory  Activity presumably helping to create memory connections  Activity in anterior parahippocampus when “know” crucial for familiarity  Effortful coding + attention to relationships not crucial sheer exposure is enough o Can be distinguished during learning certain brain areas esp. Active during learning = stimulus likely to seem familiar later (trigger “know” response)  Other brain areas active during learning = high probability of “remember” response later Lexical-decision task – shown series of letter strings for each must indicate whether English or not o Lexical decision task = duplicates of words seen in first part of experiment see if first exposure somehow primed for second o Lexical decisions = quicker if recently saw test word  pattern of repetition priming – observed when participants have no recollection for having encountered the stimulus words before  demonstrated by (1) test that assess memory directly and uses standard recognition procedure o or (2) indirect test that relies on lexical decision o the 2 often yield different results  at sufficient delay, direct memory test likely to show participants completely forgot words presented earlier (recognition performance random)  lexical-decision results = still remember words perfectly well robust priming effect  participants have no conscious memory of seeing the stimulus words, but still influenced by earlier experience - tests of tachistoscopic recognition = identity each word/say what it is some were presented during procedure’s initial phase, others new o performance improved if recently viewed test word  does not depend on conscious recollection show repetition priming effect even for words that cannot recall seeing on earlier list  influenced by specific past experience (seemed to) not remembered at all “memory without awareness” Word-stem completion – given 3 or 4 letters + must produce word with their beginning o people more likely to offer specific word if encountered it recently (even without conscious memory of encounter) Explicit memory – revealed by direct memory testing – specifically urges to remember past (i.e. recall, standard recognition test) Implicit memory – often manifested as priming effects; revealed by indirect memory testing – currently behaviour influenced by prior event but may not be aware o i.e. tachistoscopic recognition, lexical decision, word-stem completion - False fame study: when 2 lists presented 1 day apart, participants likely to rate made-up names as being famous false judgements of fame = interpretation o feeling of familiarity produced = relatively vague open to interpretation o implicit memories may leave people only with broad sense that stimulus somehow distinctive (“rings a bell”) what happens after depends on interpretation - study: sentences heard before more likely to be accepted as true familiarity increases credibility o same effect when warned not to believe sentences in first list o statements plainly identified as false when first heard still create illusion of truth – statement subsequently judged to be more credible than sentences never heard before - ^ studies = participants misinterpreting sense of familiarity - Study: if sentence was one of previously presented, participants had easier time hearing it against backdrop of noise o Noise containing familiar sentences (mis)perceived as being softer than actual; noise containing new = loud o Memory showed influence by changing how participants felt about entirely different stimulus (noise in which sentences embedded) Source confusion – correctly realize stimuli look familiar but confused about source of familiarity o i.e. court cases suspect identification (pg. 189-97) Amnesia – loss of memory; can occur from variety of injuries or illnesses Retrograde – disrupts memory for things learned prior to event that initiated amnesia  often caused by i.e. blows to head Anterograde – disruption of memory for experiences after onset of amnesia  nothing wrong with long-term memory; seemingly intact working memories = remember events as think about them (ability to participate in normal convo) o many cases have both retrograde and anterograde memory loss - H.M. has surgery to remove portions of brain to rid of epilepsy (hippocampal damage) unable to learn anything new (anterograde amnesia can’t remember anything since/after surgery) o Similar in long-time alcoholics due to inadequate diets, esp. Lacking vitamin B1 (thiamine) Korsakoff’s syndrome – thiamine deficiency; little problem remembering events before onset of alcoholism  Current topics can be maintained in mind as long as no interruption  New info displaced from mind lost forever - Amnesia typically associated with damage that involves hippocampus and neighbouring brain areas crucial for memory o Damage does not completely disrupt already-established memories; hippocampus damage associated with anterograde amnesia main role in memory acquisition - Earlier amnesia = “disconnection syndrome” problem in connection between working and long- term memory= unable to move info from working to long-term storage - Claparede put pin in hand to prick when shaking Korsakoff’s amnesic patient’s hand o next day reached out to shake patient’s hand again Patient gave no indication that she recognized him or remembered anything prior to the encounter but withdrew her hand and would not shake hands with him and said “sometimes pins are hidden in people’s hands”  patient knew something of previous days’ mishap but could not report knowledge o another study study: Korsakoff’s patients asked series of trivia q’s for each, possible answers offered in m/c and had to choose right answer  if didn’t know answer, were told it q replaced in stack (patient’s didn’t know)  later q came up again, this time patient got it right apparently “learned” in previous encounter and “remembered” relevant info  but had no recollection of learning; unable to explain why answers correct - study: Korsakoff’s patients heard series of brief melodies short time later presented with new series and told some repeated from earlier presentation o in telling which repeats = poor, memory responses close to random o but when asked which melodies preferred, uniformly preferred familiar ones no explicit memory for the tunes but memory emerged with indirect testing (as preference) - amnesic patients seem to have intact “implicit memories” influenced by specific episodes in past even without conscious recollection of the episodes o explicit memory independent of implicit memory Double dissociation – provided by i.e. patients who have implicit memory intact (and explicit disrupted) + explicit intact (and implicit disrupted) o shows that it’s possible to interfere with explicit memory while sparing implicit + possible to disrupt implicit memory while sparing explicit o shows that the memory system are separate from each other o study: patient suffering brain damage to hippocampus but not amygdala + patient with damage to amygdala but not hippocampus  series of trials of stimulus (blue light) followed by loud horn vs. other stimuli (green, yellow, or red) not followed by horn  later exposed to blue light, bodily arousal measured  damage to hippocampus = no fear reaction to blue light; when asked directly could not explicitly recall which of lights associated with boat horn  damage to amygdala = able to report calmly that just blue light associated with horn (intact explicit memory); no fear response to blue light o damage to occipital lobe in areas crucial for vision shown list of words then tested where words mixed together with new words judge which old/new  + where words presented techistoscopically judge whether words shown earlier more easily identified  test of explicit recognition memory = normal performance; tachistoscopic task = no evidence of repetition priming - learning that prepares you well for one sort of memory retrieval may be worthless as preparation for different sort learning allows to remember well in one situation but maybe not in different o learning that prepares for explicit memory test may not prepare for implicit test, vice versa - nature of disruption depends on how memories will be used later on/retrieved - best strategy in learning would be employ multiple perspectives CH 8 (pg 235-47) - connections = memory knowledge represented via network of connections/set of associations Nodes – representations of individual ideas tied to each other by associations/associative links o not all associations of equal strength why some memories more easily recalled; i.e. recency or frequency, some built in (innately strong) Spreading activation – nodes activated when receive strong enough input signal once activated, can activate others  greater activation at particular node = activation level increases for that node eventually reaches response threshold node fires  firing = node becomes source of activation, sends energy to neighbours and activates them + attention to the node (“finding” a node within network)  nodes like neurons can exist only through functioning of neural tissue o like detectors too (in recognition) - some active intellectual engagement needed to create/strengthen connections o nature of engagement = crucial Sub-threshold activation – activation levels below response threshold o important activation accumulates, 2 sub-threshold inputs/sources (i.e. cues, context) can summate (add together) and bring node to threshold o recently partially activated node = “warmed up” effect even weak input sufficient to bring the node to threshold - hint changes activation activation from 2 sources simultaneously = question + hint > question - being in certain context will bring certain thoughts to mind during learning some of the thoughts will become associated with materials being learned o being in context will activate certain thoughts, nodes representing the thoughts will become connected to nodes representing materials to be remembered (context = double input) Lexical-decision task – participants shown series of letter sequences some real words, others not “yes” if work, “no” if not  perform by “looking up” letter strings in “mental dictionary” base response on
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