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Chapter 4

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PSYC 2650

Chapter 4 Paying Attention Selective Attention  William James is a influential person in cognitive psychology o Famous quote of what attention is  Concentration on something to do it effectively but you sacrifice concentration on something else Dichotic Listening  Dichotic listening is a method to study attention o Participants put on headphones, heard one input in the left and different one in the right o Participants were told to pay attention to one of these channels  The attended channel o And told to ignore the other sound in the other ear  The unattended channel o Took make sure participants are paying attention they are usually given a task  Called shadowing  They were listening to a speech on the left side they had to repeat it back word for word  Although the people could not understand the input of the unattended channel they could realize if it was music or speech, high or low, or woman or man Some Unattended Inputs Are Detached  Some people don't follow this pattern and information seems to ‘leak’ through and get noticed o Words with personal importance in the unattended channel was heard  This is known as the cocktail party effect o You may be focusing on your conversation but if you hear your friends name it catches your attention and you listen to it Perceiving and the Limits on Cognitive Capacity  You block off unimportant input o Part of bottleneck theories  Early theories of attention o Suggested that you erect a filter that shields you from potential distractors  You process the attended channel  New research shows that cant separate undesirable attractions from desirable ones  You are able to promote the processing of desired stimuli Inattentional Blindness  A fixation target is a mark on the screen you focus on while trying to detect something about another stimuli  Inattentional blindness is when you fail to see something in front of you due to the fact you were not expecting or prepared to see it  Perception requires more than having stimulus in front of you Conscious Perception, Unconscious perception  There is no conscious perception without attention o Mack and Rock argue  Although the Muller-Lyer illusion shows differently o You can unconsciously detect and be influenced by patterns without being aware of it Change Blindness  Change blindness is the observers inability to detect changes in scenes they are directly looking at o What’s the difference between the pictures Early Versus Late Selection  People missing stimuli in front of their eyes is explained in 2 ways o Perception  They don't see the stimuli o Memory  People see it but forget it  The early selection hypothesis states the attended input is identified and privileged from the start so that unattended input receives little or no analysis  Late selection hypothesis states all inputs receive complete analysis, and the selection is done after all the analysis is finished o Selection may be done before consciousness or just after we are conscious of it but we don't remember the unattended input  Both of these hypothesis are a bit true  These may be the case because some stimuli needs more attention then others leaving no resources left o But for simple stimuli less resources are needed  Brain activity shows both early and late selection Selective Priming  People may have to prepare themselves for perceiving things by priming the suitable detectors  For listening we don't waste resources on a distractor and listen to what interests us o You listen to your name because they are frequently used in the past Two Types of Priming  One priming does not take any effort or resources since you've encountered the stimuli so frequently/recently o Hearing your name  The other priming is one that you are in control of. You ready prime detectors for inputs that you believe are coming  Posner and Snyder experiment of priming o A + AA o Priming the wrong detectors takes nothing away from other detectors  Misleading and neutral was the same Explaining The Costs and Benefits  Presenting the stimulus priming  Expectation-based priming o Takes a bit longer since you have to form an expectation  Stimulus based priming seems to not take away anything from other detectors o Does not take away resources o Expectation does have a cost to other detectors  Expectation based priming reveals the presence of a limited-capacity system o More resources into one detector means less for another Chronometric Studies ad Spatial Attention  Spatial attention is the ability to focus on a particular position in space and thus be better prepared for any stimulus that appears in the position Attention As a Spotlight  Spatial attention gives some psychologists the view that visual attention is like a spotlight o Attention…. Not the movement of the eyes  Attention occurs prior to any eye movement  Frontal and parietal cortex send information to rest of the brain about stimulus we receive Attending to Objects or Attending to Positions  Patients who have unilateral neglecy syndrome ignore inputs coming from one side of their body
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