Chapter 11 – Coaching Psychology
Coaching science; compromises research on coaching, learning and instructional processes as directed by coaches
o Coaching science research has increased since 1970 – average 30 articles per year
o Small core of authors who are significant
o Started at examining coaching behaviours and now looks at it in combination with coaching cognition
o No single resources that lists/evaluates tools to study coaches
o Coaching gender issues are a popular topic
Coach education – the path to become a coach isn’t as clear as other jobs, coaching education and development is governed by
the Coaching Association of Canada.
NCCP – national coaching certification program meets the needs of all coaches, trains and certifies coaches in 60+ sports.
Based around a competency-based approach to coach training and education – more emphasis on coaches’ abilities to meet the
needs of the participants. Approach used to be what a coach should know, now it is what a coach should do
NCCP model is divided into 3 streams:
o Community sport stream – introductory levels
o Competition stream – skill development
o Instruction stream – skill proficiency
National Coaching Institutes – enhance the training environment for high-performance coaches (and athletes). Passing this
program grants a diploma.
Australia – National Coaching Accreditation Scheme – progressive coach education program
United Kingdom –National Coaching foundation; guide the education/development of coaches and to promote coaching as a
United States – doesn’t only have 1 government-based national coaching organization, but rather has coaching development
Currently, coaching education is aided by the International Council for Coach Education – improve quality and exposure of
coaching at all levels around the world
Researchers found that elite athletic experiences were found to be an important aspect of expert coaches’ career development,
knowledge and career success.
Volunteering in the community, gaining experience as an assistant coach, frequently interacting with other coaches, observing
other coaches, studying kinesiology and physical education at university, attending coaching clinics, reading coaching books and
acquiring coaching information via the Internet
Importance of mentoring*
High-level head coaching positions in Canada = women are under-represented (10-15% were women only). While many men
coach women’s teams, only 2 women coached men’s teams.
Characteristics of Youth Coaches
Most are male, mid-30s, as few as 10% continue coaching for more than 10 years, almost all competed themselves and were
above average, most of them acquired athletic experience for at least 5 years + in the sport they coach, love of the sport and
wanting to remain associated, most have a child of their own on the team, just over half are university educated
Many are reluctant on sharing coaching experiences/strategies (secrets) – and some complain that they operate in isolation
without enough opportunity to communicate with others
Ideal Behaviours of Youth Coaches
Research in the past 35 years can be split into 2 phases:
o 1; development of the meditational model of leadership and coaching behaviour assessment system to categorize
coaching behaviours. Findings shows that coaching behaviours influenced children’s self-perceptions, anxiety, etc.
o 2; implementation of an intervention program called coach effectiveness training – showed that players playing for
trained coaches vs. untrained volunteers increased self-esteem, had decreases in anxiety, etc – also more likely to return
o Recently modified CET – to mastery approach to coaching (MAC) – promotion of team cohesiveness and positive
coach-athlete interaction that creates healthy environment. Reduced the five principles of before to 2 themes.
Leadership has been defined as a process whereby an individual infl