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PSYC 3480 (71)
Chapter 39

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PSYC 3480
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 39 – Violence and Aggression  "To injure an opponent is to injure yourself." - Morihei Ueshiba  Aggression is defended by supporters, criticized by opponents, and debated in the media  Judgment that action is aggressive depends upon complex consideration of factors, such as, who is aggressor, who is victim, what is purpose, and what are consequences?  Has at least three common characteristics: o 1) Overt behavior is directed against victim o 2) Intent to harm victim o 3) Reasonable expectation that act will injure victim  Includes both direct and indirect physical and verbal acts, can be active or passive in content o E.g. punching an opponent is direct and active physical act, while committing practical joke against teammate is indirect and passive physical act  Subdivided into 2 basic types o Hostile Aggression – primary goal is to inflict pain and injury on victim, always accompanied by anger on part of aggressor o Instrumental Aggression – also involves intent to injure, but primary goal is means to an end rather than an end in itself. Aggressor, who may or may not be angry, willing to hurt others in order to attain goal  Anger aggression often occurs as retaliation for opposing players' unfair actions; power aggression is used to intimidate in hope it will distract opponents' concentrati
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