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PSY 120

Chapter 1: Top down knowledge- info sent to the government Prison Study (Zimbardo) Active Excitable Brooding Lateral knowledge- knowledge passed down person - what happens if uni students were prisoners and gaurds Galen (190CE) Phlegmatic Sanguine Choleric Melancholic Psychology- behavior and mental processes and how they are affected in physical, mentalstate and external environment - set to last 2 weeks but stopped after 6 days Fromm (1947) Marketing Exploitative Receptive Hoarding Psychobabble- things that sound scientific but are false and babble - some guards were nice, some strict but fair, 1/3 harsh even when prisoners not resisting Critical thinking- making judgments on thebasis of reason and evidence: ask, define, examine, analyze, no emotions, don’t oversimplify, consider other interpretations, and tolerate o because of wearing a gaurds uniform and have power Kearsay (’98) Rational Artist Idealist Guardian uncertainty Why people obey Fisher (2009) Director Explorer Negotiator Builders Phrenology- not believed any more, different brain areas account for different traits Testosterone Dopamine Estrogen Serotonin - authority: reward, legitimacy, learn, don’t want to seem rude, disliked Wilhelm Wundt- structuralism, you can study experience if you break it down, asked to inspect content of thoughts - entrapment: gradual process when individuals escalate actions to justify investment of time, money and investment (milgrams study) The development of personality Structuralism- analysis of experience into elements- “what of mentalcontents” Beliefs and Behaviors Psychosexual stages: Freud’s theory, sexual energy takes different forms as a child matures; thestages are: oral (1 year), anal (2 to 3 years old), William James- functionalism, disagreed with wundt, mind can not be broken down, how mind function- not structure, “how mind works” Social cognition- social influences on thoughts, memory, perception and beliefs phallic (5-6 years old),latency ( puberty), genital (puberty leading into adulthood) Functionalism- function or purpose of behavior or consciousness Attribution theory: way to explain other peoples and own behaviors, 2 main categories - if these are not resolved, development may be interrupted and the child may be stuck at the current stage Sigmund Freud- psychoanalysis, behavior based on unconsciousness Dispositional attributions- good people do good, evil do evil - the most crucial stage for formation of personality is the phallic stage; when child wants to marry mom or dad (Oedipus complex) Psychoanalysis- unconscious motives and conflicts Fundamental attribution error- ignoring influence of situation for behavior and concentrating personality traits alone; overestimate The modern study of personality Perspectives disposition and underestimate situation Popular personality tests Biological- bodily events and changes with actions, feelings and thoughts Situational attribution- good people do bad things depends on situation/environment Objective tests (inventories)- standardized questionnaire requiring written responses, it typically includes scales -evolutionary- evolution of human explains commonalities, and areas of behavior Biases- 2 types Core Personality traits Learning- how environment affects person actions choose most flattering and most forgiving attribution of our own lapses- taking credit for good actions but letting situation account for failures 5 center traits: - Behavior- observable Believe that the world is fair- Just world hypothesis: bad people punished, good people rewarded 1. Extroversion vs. Introversion- extent to which people are outgoing or shy - Social cognitive- thoughts, values, expectations, intention Attitudes 2. Neuroticism (Negative emotionality) vs Emotional stability- extent to which person suffers from such traits as anxiety, anger, guilt, contempt, and Cognitive- thinking, memory, problem solving, brain shit Implicit- unaware resentment. Neurotic individuals are warriors and complainers even when they haveno problem Sociocultural- social and cultural influences on behavior Explicit- we are aware of them 3. Agreeableness vs antagonism- extent to which people good natured or irritable Psychodynamic- unconscious thoughts, desire and conflicts Cognitive dissonance: when 2 attitudes are in conflict, to fix; lower opinion or persons behavior wasn’t that bad (ex. tiger woods) 4. Conscientiousness vs impulsiveness- degree to which people are responsible or undependable Humanist- not scientific: personal growth and achievement Familiarity affect: tendency to hold positive attitudes towards people or things that they are more familiar with 5. Openness vs resistance to new experience- extent to which people are curious or conforming Feminist- gender relations and conflict b/t sexes Validity affect: statement is true or valid because it has been repeated many times Factor analysis: statistical methods for analyzing intercorrelations among test scores (clusters are highly correlated) Developmental- change and grow over time Do genes influence attitudes- no! Clinical- diagnose, treat, and study mentalor emotional problems Brainwashing- sudden change of mind without being aware of it Chapter 4- Emotion, Stress, and health Neuropsychology- brain influences, emotions and behavior Persuasion- coercive persuasion: design to suppress individual’s ability to reason or make choices to own best interest Child development Emotions Psychotherapist- anyone who does psychotherapy - Entrapment, persons problem explained by one simple attribution, person offered new identity, persons access to disconfirming information is severely Physiological: Experiential:Expressive: Psychoanalyst- qualified person practicing psychoanalysis controlled Emotion and body Psychiatrist- MD, in mental disorders Individuals and Others Emotions: state of arousal that involves facial and bodily changes in brain activation, feeling and behavior- shaped by cultural rules, thoughts are Chapter 2 Ostracism- rejection or permanent banishment to people who don’t fit into group How do research Conformity- taking action or adopting attitudes according to groups pressure (line test, Asch experiment, only 20% independent, 1/3 conformed, rest conformed sometimes) private emotions are not, we see emotion about a thought, not though about emotion Precision- general-specific: observe idea lead up to theory Groupthink- ignoring dissenting voices Functions: functionalist approach- prompt an action in the service of personal goals - specific-general: have a theory and break it down to observation/test Primary emotions- universal biological based emotions (ex. happy and sad),fear, anger, sadness, happiness,surprise, disgust and interest Symptoms: illusion of invulnerability (we are correct), self censorship (dissenter keeping quiet), pressure on dissenters to conform (teases or humiliates), Secondary emotions: specific to culture emotions Skepticism- never accept research based on faith or authority, question everything illusion of unanimity (don’t care) Face of emotion- use different groups of muscles Empirical evidence- what you observe Crowds- Wilhelm reich o false smile is 10 seconds, authentic smile is 2 seconds Falsifiable, risky prediction- be able to accept that theory can be wrong Diffusion of responsibility- avoid taking action because think others will Openness- keep your lab open for biases and people opinions, share research Deindividuation- loss of awareness of ones own individuality- large city (canuck) o Paul Ekman, 7 universal emotions, 80 facial muscles,elicit emotions, other emotions can get you, microexpression Research methods Anomynity and responsibility- even if your part of crowd you are responsible, some do not go alone because morality o Carol tarvis: body language Descriptive- describe and predict behavior ex. case studies, observational, tests, surveys, interpretive description (making sense of knowledge) Alturism and dissent Functions of facial expressions o sends messages to the brain about basic emotion being expressed Correlation- relationship of 2 variables Deciding to behave courageously, disobey orders o smile= increase positivefeeling - negative correlations: one high, other low -1 - perceive the need for intervention and help: blindness to the action o frown= decrease positive feeling - positive correlations: BOTH high or low +1 - cultural norms encourage you to take action - it does not explain causes, only a relationship - you have an ally: combines efforts persuade majority o limits to signaling function begins in infancy,babies soon primed to respond to others Experiment- researcher manipulates one variable and its effects on another - entrapped o there are cultural and social readability of facial expressions: - independent- experimenter manipulates Social identity: identification with a nation, religious or political group and social affiliations  1. Better at identifying expressions of own ethnic group  2. In culture facial expressions can have different meanings depending on situation - dependent- affected variable; depends on the independent variable Ethnic identity: persons identification with a racial or ethnic group Emotion and the mind - single blind study- participants do not know Acculturation: when minority become a part of mainstream culture - thoughts effect emotion, but emotion influences thoughts - double blind study- experimenters nor participants know Ethnocentrism: thinking your ethnic group is the best; concept of “us” Chapter 6 Racism: based on skin color and other characteristics (genotype and phenotype) - explanations people make of their own and others behaviors Periods of development Stereotypes: thought of all members of a group sharing the same trait - self conscious (shame or guilt): emotions require the emergence of a senseof self and the ability to perceive that you have behaved badly or let down - prenatal (-9 to 0): Group conflict and prejudice someone o measles (affect eyes ears (deafness) heart) Prejudice: negative stereotype and dislike or hatred of a group Emotions and culture - difference between primary emotions and more complex cultural variations, is reflected in language all over the world o Chemicals (deformities, cognitive abnormalities) Psychological causes: in order to feel better about themselves they are prejudice towards groups (ex. 9/11) to displace anger and cope with feeling of o STD (physical disorders) smoking (miscarriage) powerlessness - display rules: social and cultural rules that regulate what a person may express o Drinking (kill neurons, ADHD) Social causes: Prejudice because conforming to friends, relatives… ect - display rules alsogovern body language and movement, posture, gesture and gaze o cocaine and other drugs (subtle impairments) Economic causes: makes discrimination seem legit by justifying majority groups dominance, status and wealth - emotion work: acting and emotion for being socially appropriate - infancy and toddler (0-2): Cultural and national causes: Prejudice to feel closer to group (ex. hating muslims to feel closer to group) - gender emotion: something men or women express depending on circumstance or cultural context o sucking, grasping, rooting- basic reflexes Defining and measuring prejudice - western culture; 95% agree on happiness, 75% agree on sadness or anger - non-western; 88% happiness,74%sadness, 59%anger o culture sometimes has effect on way baby learns stuff Measures of social distance: social behavior expression to prejudice (ex. not standing close to a gay man, marrying into different ethnic background) o John Bowlby- orphanages (bad effects) and reactive attachment disorder and children with caregivers have security Measures of what people do when stressed or angry: reviling of prejudice when in stress or impairment Stress and body o attachment- certain attachments have long lasting emotion cognitive consequences Measures of brain activity: measure of brain activity to do with prejudice; activity in amygdala (associated with fear and negative emotions) was elevated - general adaptation syndrome (GAS): 3 phases, Hans Selye- positive or negative, eustress or distress, physiological  separation anxiety- between 6-8 months, distress with being with strangers- mary anisworth Measures of implicit attitudes: unconscious prejudice towards a group o alarm phase- epinephrine and norepinephrine (stress hormones) increase blood flow, heart rate, muscle tension and “strange situation”- Reducing conflict in prejudice decrease digestion  secure- cry when parent leave, happy when back- attached to parent - Both sides must have equal legal status, economic opportunities and power o resistance phase- try to avoid this stressor but cannot be avoided - Authority and community institutions must provide moral, legal and economic support for both sides o exhaustion phase- long term stress depletes energy, increased risk of being sick, physical problems  insecure 2 types: o avoidant- doesn’t care if mom leaves - Both sides must have opportunities to work and socialize together, formally and informally - medulla- epinephrine and norepinephrine room, treats stranger and mother - Both sides must cooperate working together for a common goal - cortex- cortisol and other hormone (pituitary) equally Chapter 5 - Hypothalamus-adrenal-medulla (ANS)- secretes nor/epinephrine o ambivalent- resist mother when there Motivation - HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex) axis-system activated to energize body to respond to stressors, secreted glucocorticoids, increase blood but cry when gone Motivation- processes which causes drive towards a goal or away from a unpleasant situation sugar o causes of insecure attachment Intrinsic- doing something for its own sake Stress and mind  abandon Extrinsic- doing something for reward - optimism: positive thoughts ment of Set point: biological mechanism that regulates weight (range) - pessimism: negative thoughts baby in Biology of weight Stress and culture 1 and 2 nd Genetic influences on weight and body shape: - locus of control: 2 different kinds of people  irregular o obese people have twice as many fat cells as normal peopledo and bigger ones o internal- responsible for personal events= good health, positive things (optimistic) parenting- o don’t loosefat cells just get thinner and easily plump up again, o external- controlled by luckfate and other people= makes nochanges to life abusive o when a thin person eats metabolism speeds up Stress and emotion and o genes determine brown and white fat (brown- energy burning) which regulates body weight and blood sugar - positive psychology = positiveattitude is healthful neglectful o genes involved in some types of obesity - anger and depression= increase risk of heart problems  child o diabetes higher in natives - good to let out feelings= increase white blood cells,decreased getting sick temperam o leptin regulates appetite
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