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BIOL 140 Module 7 Notes

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 240
Trevor Charles

MODULE 7 Part A: Theories on the Origins of Life Introduction - RNA form of life may be precursor to modern cellular forms of life - Ribosymes: RNA molecules acting as enzymes - RNA acts as intermediary between protein and DNA - Protein  enzymatic activity - DNA  genetic activity The Evolution of the Earth and the First Life Forms - Molecules of RNA polymer developed ability to replicate - Not cellular and no metabolism - Captured by lipoprotein  becomes membrane - RNA  coding and catalytic molecule - DNA replaced RNA as coding molecule Primitive Physiology - First type of metabolism  anoxic conditions Stromatolites - fossilized mats of filamentous organisms Endosymbiosis - Universal ancestor  bacteria and archaea - nuclear line  increase in cell size  primitive eukaryote and origin of nucleus - Endosymbiosis  modern eukaryotes lacking mitochondria and primitive mitchondria Determining How Organisms are Related to Each Other - Special portions of genome  make DNA comparisons - Ribosomal RNA encoding gee or 16S ribosomal DNA - Comparing DNA sequences of orgnanisms Part B: Ribosomal RNA as an Evolutionary Chronometer Ribosomal RNA - 16S ribosomal RNA  standard molecular chronometer used to determine phlogeny - All organisms have either 16S or 18S ribosomal RNA - 16S = component of ribosome - 3D shape with intramolecular base pairing - Mutations arise spontaneously at given rate so more mutations present over time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - Primers: short single-stranded nucleotide strands designed to base pair to conserved regions of gene - Amplication product  results from many PCR cycles The Phylogenetic Tree - Three domains – bacteria, arcahea, eukarya Part C: Microbial Phylogeny from Ribosomal RNA Introduction - Using subunit rRNA capability to look at organisms in environment - Characteristics of primary domains of life - Constrasting classical taxonomy with molecular taxonomy Signature Seque
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