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BIOL240 Chapter Notes -16S Ribosomal Rna, 18S Ribosomal Rna, Ribosomal Rna


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL240
Professor
Trevor Charles

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MODULE 7
Part A: Theories on the Origins of Life
Introduction
- RNA form of life may be precursor to modern cellular forms of life
- Ribosymes: RNA molecules acting as enzymes
- RNA acts as intermediary between protein and DNA
- Protein enzymatic activity
- DNA genetic activity
The Evolution of the Earth and the First Life Forms
- Molecules of RNA polymer developed ability to replicate
- Not cellular and no metabolism
- Captured by lipoprotein becomes membrane
- RNA coding and catalytic molecule
- DNA replaced RNA as coding molecule
Primitive Physiology
- First type of metabolism anoxic conditions
Stromatolites
- fossilized mats of filamentous organisms
Endosymbiosis
- Universal ancestor bacteria and archaea
- nuclear line increase in cell size primitive eukaryote and origin of nucleus
- Endosymbiosis modern eukaryotes lacking mitochondria and primitive mitchondria
Determining How Organisms are Related to Each Other
- Special portions of genome make DNA comparisons
- Ribosomal RNA encoding gee or 16S ribosomal DNA
- Comparing DNA sequences of orgnanisms
Part B: Ribosomal RNA as an Evolutionary Chronometer
Ribosomal RNA
- 16S ribosomal RNA standard molecular chronometer used to determine phlogeny
- All organisms have either 16S or 18S ribosomal RNA
- 16S = component of ribosome
- 3D shape with intramolecular base pairing
- Mutations arise spontaneously at given rate so more mutations present over time
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
- Primers: short single-stranded nucleotide strands designed to base pair to conserved
regions of gene
- Amplication product results from many PCR cycles
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