Chapter 5.docx

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University of Waterloo
Geography and Environmental Management
GEOG 101
Khan Rahman

Chapter 5 Distribution and density  one of geography's central concerns  3 problems finding out population density  1) required data is not available for all countries 2) available data have been collected for various purposes and hence may reflect different divisions from the ones we are interested in 3) distribution and density are closely related to spatial scale, they often suggest an inaccurate picture of reality  distribution refers to the spatial arrangement of geographic facts  density is the frequency of occurrence of geographic facts within a specific area  population density is the total number of people within a unit of area  physiological density is the measure of population per unit of cultivable land (ex. land area deemed suitable for agriculture) Migration  migration may be defined as a particular kind of mobility that involves a spatial movement of residence  Why do people migrate?  1) Push and Pull Factors  Push factors are factors which make people want to leave or migrate elsewhere (ex. discrimination, natural disasters, localized recession, limited family, etc)  pull factors are factors which make people want to come or migrate in to their country (ex. increased income, improved personal growth opportunities, other family and friends, preferable environment)  push/pull factors can be sorted in 4 categories: environmental, political, cultural and economic  2) in the late 19th century, Ravenstein attempted to make specific laws for migration  there are 11 in total but just like push/pull factors, it failed to take in to account the individual differences of people  3) Mobility transition (Zelinsky)- his theory proposed 5 phases of migration  i) pre-modern traditional society (minimal residential migration, high birth and death rates)  ii) early transitional society (migration from rural-urban areas, high birth rate falling death rate, industrialization, overseas expansion)  iii) late transitional society (rural-urban movements decline, overseas migration reduced, declining birth rates, reduced death rates)  iv) advanced society (international migration increases, unskilled and skilled workers moving)  v) future super-advanced society (predicted migration is between urban centres)  still didn't account for individual differences  4) Behavioural Explanation- focuses on the people themselves  place utility- measure of an individual's satisfaction with a particular location  place utility is an individually focused version of push/pull logic  this concept was developed by Wolpert who argued it was necessary to research an individual's spatial preferences (evaluation of the relative attractiveness of different locations)  5) Moorings- issues through which individuals give meaning to their lives  the likelihood of people staying or migrating depends on the value they place on their moorings Typical Moorings  3 types of issues (Life-course, Cultural and Spatial)  Life-Course: household/family structure, career opportunities, household income, educational opportunities and care giving responsibilities  Cultural: household wealth, employment structure, social networks, ethnicity, cultural affiliations, class structure and socio-economic ideologies  Spatial: climate features and access to contacts and cultural icons Ravenstein Laws 1) majority of migrants travel a short distance 2) migration proceeds step by step (ex. if you move from Europe to Canada you might first go to a port city like Montreal and then move rural to Quebec) 3) migrants moving long distances usually head big commercial or industrial
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