HRM303 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Eval, Job Evaluation, Job Analysis

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Chapter 7: evaluating jobs – the job evaluating process
Job analysis
Job analysis: process of collecting information on which job descriptions are
based
Job description: summary of the duties, responsibilities, and reporting
relationships pertaining to a particular job
Job specifications: employee qualifications deemed necessary to
successfully perform the duties for a given job
Nature of required information
Job duties are changing all the time in larger organizations
Methods of job analysis
Four methods of job analysis: observation, interviews, questionnaires and
functional job analysis
Organizations that are just being created must depend on fourth one
Observation
Watching employee as the job is performed and noting kinds of activities
performed, with whom they are performed and with what tools or
equipment
Short work cycle
Interviews
Can be conducted with a sample of employees or supervisors or both
Main drawback to interviewing people is the cost of time involved both for
the job analysis and for the interviewees
Questionnaires
Depend on two dimensions: open ended or close ended
May be firm specific or proprietary
Since development of reliable and valid questionnaires is complex process,
many organizations use proprietary questionnaires
PAQ (position analysis questionnaire)
o1. Information input: describes source of info an employee uses on job
o2. Mental processes: describes types of reasoning, decision making,
planning and info processing activities being used
o3. Work output: items that assess physical activities and use of tools in
work process
o4. Relationships with other persons: describes extent to which job
involves working with other people
o5. Job context: examine physical/social environment on job
o6. Other job: covers conditions of work not covered by first 5
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Functional job analysis
An attempt to develop generic descriptions of jobs using common set of job
functions
Current system uses series of task statements that contain 4 elements for
each:
o1. Who performs what
o2. To whom or what
o3. With what tools, equipment, or processes
o4. To achieve what purpose or outcome
Identifying job families
Convenient to identify jobs that are related to one another and then to cluster
them into job families
Eight job families: executives, managers, professionals, technical staff, sales
staff, production/operations workers, trades, support staff
Pitfalls in job analysis
Risk of analyzing the jobholder instead of the job
Job descriptions have been subject to gender bias
Dynamic: job analysis and information it produces is useful only as long as
job stays constant
Job evaluation method
1. Ranking
2. Classification or grading
3. Factor comparison
4. Statistical/policy capturing
5. Point method
Ranking/paired comparison
Ranking method: relatives values of different jobs are determined by
knowledgeable individuals
Paired comparison: every job is compared with every other job, providing a
basis or a ranking of jobs
Drawbacks:
Difficult to get the group of judges to agree on rankings since relative
importance of each job factor may be weighed differently
Does not establish relative intervals between jobs
Problem could be rectified by comparing each job to others using each of four
factor categories separately
Classification/grading
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