MSCI211 Chapter Notes -Intellectual Capital, Role Conflict, Integrated Farming

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Final Topics
1. What are culture dimensions? How can they be applied in OB?
Ch. 3, p42
Answer:
Link (Culture is the learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or a
society.)
Some popular dimensions of culture include differences that can be observed in:
1. Language;
2. Time orientation;
3. Use of space; and
4. Religion;
Hofstede’s five dimensions of national cultures and national cultures include:
1. Power distance: the willingness to accept status and power differences among its members.
2. Uncertainty avoidance: tendency to be uncomfortable with risk and ambiguity.
3. Individualism-collectivism: tendency to emphasize either individual or group interests.
4. Masculinity-femininity: tendency to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
5. Long-term/short-term orientation: tendency to emphasize values associated with the future,
such as thrift and persistence, or values that focus largely on the present.
Note: on p46 there are 3 types of culture differences: (1) relationships with people, (2) attitudes
toward time, (3) attitudes toward the environment. In my opinion it is not the range of this question.
Please indicate if you think this is incorrect.
Application?
2. What are the major types of organization structures? What’s the application
of each of them?
Ch. 11, p215 (Horizontal specialization)
Prof. Blake said he preferred the bureaucracy types:
Pure types:
1. Mechanistic type (machine bureaucracy): emphasizes vertical specialization and control,
with impersonal coordination and a heavy reliance on standardization, formalization, rules,
policies, and procedures. It is often used to achieve efficiency.
2. Organic type (professional bureaucracy): emphasizes horizontal specialization, extensive
use of personal coordination, and loose rules, policies, and procedures. It is often used for
problem-solving and satisfying individual customer needs.
Hybrid types:
3. Divisional pattern: groups individuals and resources by products, territories, services,
clients, or legal entities. This structure is often used to respond to diverse external threats
and opportunities. This is used to allow different divisions to be more or less organic or
mechanistic.
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4. Conglomerate: firms that own several different unrelated businesses. It is always used in the
organization is providing varies kinds of services. (not sure about this, double check)
/*
There are 3 pure forms of organization structures:
1. Functional structure: grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action yields. This
structure is often used in small firms. Even large firms use this structure in technically
demanding areas or when low cost is a major competitive focus.
2. Divisional structure: groups individuals and resources by products, territories, services,
clients, or legal entities. This structure is often used to respond to diverse external threats
and opportunities.
3. Matrix structure: a combination of functional and divisional patterns which assigns an
individual to more than one type of unit. This structure is often used when precise
integration and control are needed across many sophisticated functional specialties and
corporations.
4. Mixed structure of above three.
*/
3. What are high performance organizations?
Ch. 2, p26
A high performance organization is designed to bring out the best in people and achieve sustained
high performance.
The essential foundation for the high performance organization is intellectual capital, the sum total of
knowledge, expertise, and energy available from an organization’s members.
HPOs tend to organize workflow around key business processes and follow human-resource policies
that are designed to increase employee flexibility, skills, knowledge, and motivation.
The key components of HPOs include:
1. Employee involvement
2. Self-directing work teams
3. Integrate production technologies
4. Organization learning
5. Total quality management
4. What roles do people play in organizations?
Chapter 4, Ch10? Pp 190… can’t find… maybe p189 types of new comer.
1. Tough battler.
2. Friendly helper.
3. Objective thinker.
If it is the managerial roles, that will be in Ch.1 p12…
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5. What are organizational change strategies? What’s the application of each of
them?
Ch. 19, p385
There are 3 strategies of organizational change.
1. Force-coercion strategy: uses authority, rewards, and punishments as the main reasons to
change. This strategy can be applied when you believe that people who run things are
basically motivated by self-interest and by what the situation offers them in potential
personal gains or losses.
2. Rational persuasion strategy: try to make change happen through the use of special
knowledge, empirical support, or rational arguments. This strategy can be applied when you
believe that people are basically rational and are guided by reason in their actions and
decision making.
3. Shared-power strategy: actively and sincerely involves the people who will be affected by a
change in planning and making key decisions about the change. This strategy can be applied
when you believe that people have complex motivations.
6. What styles are there to handle conflict? When is it appropriate to apply?
Ch. 18, p367
Conflict can be handled in many ways, but the important goal is to achieve or make it possible for
there to be true conflict resolution (occurs when the reasons for a conflict are eliminated).
There are several indirect conflict management approaches:
1. Reduced interdependence: when workflow conflicts exist, managers can adjust the level of
interdependency among the units or individuals. This can be applied when the units’ tasks
can be adjusted to reduce the number of required points of coordination.
2. Appeals to Common Goals: to common goals can focus the attention of potentially conflicting
parties on one mutually desirable conclusion. This can be applied when the potential dispute
is seen through a common framework that helps the parties recognize that they need each
other in order to achieve common goals.
3. Hierarchical Referral: uses the chain of command for conflict resolution, i.e. refer the
problem for more senior managers up the hierarchy to solve. This can be applied when the
problem is not severe or recurring.
4. Altering Scripts and Myths: The scripts become rituals that allow the conflicting parties to
express their frustrations and to recognize that they depend on each other through the
larger corporation. This can be applied in some situations that conflict is superficially
managed by scripts, or behavioural routines that become part of the organization’s culture.
As well as the direct conflict management approaches: (cooperativeness attempting to satisfy the
other party’s concerns, assertiveness attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns)
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