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Midterm #2 Study Guide All textbook notes for midterm 2, with lots of examples and info about experiments and important researchers :)

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Ori Friedman

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PSYCH 211 Midterm 2 Material BB CHAPTER 4 Theories of Cognitive Development Five theoretical perspectives on cognitive development that are particularly influentialo The Piagetian perspectiveo Informationprocessing perspectiveo Coreknowledge perspectiveo Sociocultural perspectiveo Dynamic systems perspectivePiagets TheoryView of Childrens Nature o His approach is often labeled as a constructivistdepicts children as constructing knowledge for themselves in response to their experiences Via hypotheses experiments and conclusions from observations child as a scientist o Children learn on their owno Children are intrinsically motivated to learn without rewards from adultsCentral Developmental Issueso Nature and nurtureNurturecare provided by parentscaregivers experiences child encountersNaturematuration of brainbody childs ability to perceive act and learn from experiencechilds motivation to meet 2 basic functions Adaptation tendency to respond to the demands of the environment in ways that meet ones goals Organization the tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledgeo sources of continuitymain sources are the 3 processes assimilation process by which people translate incoming information into a form that fits concepts they already understandincorporate new info into concepts they already understandeg person thats balding and has some curly hairCLOWNaccommodation the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experienceseg person needs more than just curly hairslightly bald head to be a clown Equilibration the process by which children or other people balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understandingPage 1 of 15PSYCH 211 Midterm 2 Material BB3 phasesEquilibriumchildren are satisfied with their understandingDisequilibriumchildren recognize shortcomings in their understanding but cant generate a better alternativeNew understandingthis new understanding eliminates shortcomings of the old one o Sources of discontinuityDistinct stages of cognitive development Piagets stage theory has certain properties qualitative change broad applicability brief transitions invariant sequence same order no skipping stages4 stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage birth2yrs the period in which intelligence is expressed through sensory and motor abilities Live in the here and nowintelligence bound to immediate perceptions and actionsPreoperational stage 27 yrs period in which children become able to represent their experiences in language mental imagery and symbolic thought Children have inability to perform mental operations forms of reasoningeg juice conservation experiment Concrete operational stage 712 yrs period in which children become able to reason logically about concrete objects and events Difficulty thinking in purely abstract terms and in generating scientific experiments to test their beliefs but understand previous reasoning stuff Formal operational stage 12yrsperiod in which people become able to think about abstractions and hypothetical situations Can perform experiments draw appropriate conclusionsThe Sensorimotor Stage birth2years Aimless sucking flailing graspingsensorimotor intelligence Infants lack object permanence the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when theyre out of view peekaboo By end of first year infants search for hidden objectso AnotBerror the tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hiddenst Fixes this error shortly after 1 bday Page 2 of 15
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