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PSYCH 212 (7)
Chapter 4

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University of Waterloo
Maureen Drysdale

Chapter 4: Individual Variations Intelligence Exploring intelligence - Verbal ability, problem-solving skills, and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences - Often focused on individual differences and assessment o The stable, consistent ways in which people are different from one another Individual intelligence tests - The Binet tests o Developed a test to meet the request of school – placing students who do not benefit from regular classes to be put into special schools, called 1905 scale o Developed the concept of mental age (MA), an individual’s level of mental development relative to others o William Stern created the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ)  MA/CA (chronological age) x 100  Ex. mental age above chronological age, IQ is more than 100 o Revisions called Stanford Binet tests, approximates a normal distribution o Normal distribution is a symmetrical distribution of scoring in which a majority of scores fall in the middle of a possible range of scores and few scores fall within the range’s extremes - The Wechsler scales o Include the Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third ed. (WPPSI-III) to test 2½ to 7, 4 edition for children and adolescents 6-16 years of age o Measures verbal IQ and performance IQ  Verbal IQ, includes verbal comprehension and working memory  Performance IQ includes perceptual reasoning and processing speed o 4 subscales comprised of 15 subsets  Vocabulary, similarities, information, digit span, arithmetic, block design, matrix reasoning, picture completion, and digit symbol coding Individual tests vs. group tests - Individual tests provides the psychologist with an opportunity to sample the student’s behaviour o Ex. degree of tolerance for frustration, anxiety , enthusiasm - Group tests o Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test (CCAT), Canadian Test of Cognitive Skills (CTCS), and the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT-8) o More convenient and economical o Examiner cannot rapport; determine the student’s level of anxiety, etc. o Students might not understand the instructions Theories of multiple intelligences - Early views o Binet and Stern, focused on concept of general intelligence, called IQ o Thurstone said people have 7 specific abilities  Verbal comprehension, number ability, word fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning and perceptual speed - Sternberg’s triarchic theory o Theory that intelligence comes in three forms: analytical, creative and practical o Analytic  ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare and contrast  Tend to be favoured in conventional schooling  Often do well in direct-instruction classes, often considered to be smart  Do well on standardized tests, and later are admitted to competitive post- secondary institutions o Creative  ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine  Might not conform to teacher’s expectations about how assignments should be done  Give unique answers instead of conformist answers o Practical  ability to use, apply, implement and put into practice  Often do not relate well to the demands of school  Often do well outside of school  Might have excellent social skills and good common sense o Believes that few tasks are purely analytical, creative or practical o Believes that it’s important to balance instruction related to the three types of intelligence  Students should be given an opportunities to learn through analytical, creative and practical thinking - Gardner’s intelligences o Believes there are at least nine types of intelligence  Verbal skills  ability to think in words and to use language to express meaning (authors, journalists)  Mathematical skills  ability to carry out mathematical operations (scientists, engineers)  Spatial skills  ability to think three-dimensionally (architects, artists, sailors)  Bodily-kinesthetic skills  ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept (surgeons, dancers, athletes)  Musical skills  sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm and tone (musicians)  Interpersonal skills  ability to
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