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PSYCH 261 (107)
Chapter 7

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Britt Anderson

Chapter 7 Audition the Body Senses and The Chemical Sense AuditionAudition is the second most important sensevalue of verbal communication makes audition even more important than vision Acoustic stimuli also provide information about things that are hidden from view and our ears work just as well in the darkThe Stimuluspitch A perceptual dimension of sound corresponds to the fundamental frequencyfrequency of vibration measured in hertzhertz Hz Cycles per secondloudness A perceptual dimension of soundfunction of sound wave intensity wave increase in appitude when it is loud decrease in appitude when it is soft Timbre A perceptual dimension of soundprovides information about the nature or complexity of the sound how many waves combine a specific soundDifferent species hear over different frequency rangesAnatomy of the EarPinnaexternal ear tunnel sound to the ear canalTympanic Membranethe eardrum vibrates when it soundsas the tympanic membrance vibrates it causes the ossicles to vibrate into something else in to the cochleaMiddle Earhollow region containing the ossicles between the tympanic membrane and the cochleaOssiclesmiddle earwhere hammercauses the cochlea to moveEar drumas the ear drum vibratesit causes the ossicles to start moving and converting the sound in to the cochlea bonesMalleus The hammer the first of the three ossicles Incus The anvil the second of the three ossicles Stapes The stirrup the last of the three ossicles Cochleasnailshaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing mechanismspart of the inner earOrgan of Corti sensory organ for the auditory system Basilar MembraneA membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear contains the organ of Cortia gel like substance embedded with tiny little hairs Hair Cells The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus Deiterss cell A supporting cell found in the organ of Corti sustains the auditory hair cells Tectorial membrane A membrane located above the basilar membrane serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move Round window An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea of the inner ear that permits vibrations to be transmitted via the oval window into the fluid in the cochleaopening in the cochlea where pressures equalizeOval window An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea that reveals a membrane against which the baseplate of the stapes presses transmitting sound vibrations into the fluid within the cochlea Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory InformationTwo types of auditory receptors inner and outer auditory hair cells that are located on the basilar membrane Hair cells contain cillaCilia fine hairlike appendages arranged in rows according to height involved in movement or in transducing sensory information found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system human cochlea contains approximately 3500 inner hair cells and 12000 outer hair cells hair cells form synapses with dendrites of bipolar neurons whose axons bring auditory information to the brain Sound waves cause both the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane to flex up
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