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Chapter 8

PSYCH 338 Chapter 8 notes

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture - Social norms hold an organization together and conformity to norms is a product of social influence process Social Influence in Organizations - People often feel or act differently from how they would as independent operators - In many social settings, people are highly dependent on others - Information dependence: reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act - Social Information Process Theory: information from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours o Look to others for information and cues on how they should behave o Compare thoughts, feelings, and actions with those of others as means of acquiring information about adequacy o Effects of social information can be strong and exerting influence - Effect dependence: reliance on others due to capacity to provide rewards and punishment - Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment o Member wishes to acquire rewards from group and avoid punishment but doesn’t subscribe to beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie norm - Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself o Often revealed by an imitation process - Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm Organizational Socialization - Socialization: process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization o New members acquire knowledge, change attitudes and perform new behaviours o Primary means by which organizations communicate culture and values to new members - Newcomers need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform duties and tasks, learn expectations of role and norms of work group, and learn about organization - Goal to provide new hires with information and knowledge or role to avoid role conflict and role ambiguity - Person-job fit: match between employees knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job - Person-organization fit: match between employees personal values and values of organization - Organizational identification: extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of organization and what it is perceived to represent - ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION o Formal process of skill and attitude acquisition (ex. going to university/college) o Informal can be acquired through jobs o Organizations vary in extent to which they encourage anticipatory - ENCOUNTER o Formal aspects - orientation programs and rotation through organization o Informal aspects – getting to know and understand style and personality of boss and coworkers o Organizational norms looking for acceptable degree of conformity to organizational norms and gradual acquisition of appropriate role o Recruits interested in having personal needs and expectations fulfilled o Success when recruit complies with critical organizational norms and should begin to identify with experienced members - ROLE MANAGEMENT o Recruit needs to form connections outside immediate workgroup Unrealistic Expectations and Psychological Contract - Hold expectations that are inaccurate and often high, so, once enter organization, get “reality shock” - Researchers found newcomers with high expectations met, had better job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, job survival and lower intentions to leave - Psychological contract: beliefs held by employees regarding reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organizations (ex. employee expects bonuses and promotions in return for hard work) - Psychological contract breach: employee perceptions that his/her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligation in psychological contract - Research found impact of psychological contract breach found breach is related to affective reactions (high feelings of contract violation and mistrust towards management), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment & higher turnover intentions), and work behaviours (lower organizational citizenship behaviour & job performance) o Due to negative effects from negative emotions from violation and mistrust towards management Methods of Organizational Socialization - Want to maintain continuity and stability of job behaviours over period of time - Realistic Job Previews: provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants o May use stimulations to permit applicants to sample work o Evidence shows effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance o Organizations that provide realistic job preview perceived as more honest and trustworthy - Employee orientation programs: designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with and the organization - Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress (ROPES): an orientation program designed to teach newcomers coping techniques to manage workplace stressors o Usually during first week of entry and lasts about 1 day – 1 week - Socialization tactics: organizations structure of the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another o Institutionalized and Individualized Socializations with 6 types of tactics each  Collective vs. individual: collective  group experiences the same challenges; individual  tailored for each member  Formal vs. informal: formal  segregate newcomers and provide formal learning experiences; informal  rely on informal and on-the-job learning (not distinguished)  Sequential vs. Random: sequential  clear steps/stages leading to assumption of role; random  ambiguous/changing sequence  Fixed vs. Variable: fixed  timetable; variable  no time frame to indicate when socialization process ends  Serial vs. Disjunctive: serial  socialized by experienced members; disjunctive  role models and experienced members DO NOT “show them the ropes”  Investiture vs. Divestiture: investiture  affirms incoming identity and attributes of new hires rather than denying them and stripping them away; Divestiture  debasement and hazing - Institutionalized socializations effective in promoting organizational loyalty and uniformity of behaviour o Result in more custodial role orientation (accept status quo and requirements of tasks and roles) - Individualized socialization have new members more likely to take on particular characteristics and style – less likely for uniformity o More innovative role orientation (may change or modify performance of tasks and roles) - Mentor: experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior person guidance and special attention - Career functions of mentoring o SPONSORSHIP – may nominate for advantageous transfers and promotions o EXPOSURE & VISIBILITY – opportunities to work with key people o COACHING & FEEDBACK – suggest work strategies and identify strengths and weaknesses in performance o DEVELOPMENTAL ASSIGNMENTS –
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