PSYCH101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Circadian Rhythm, Jet Lag

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16 Aug 2016
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PSYCH 101- Chapter 5 (Consciousness) Notes
What is consciousness?
- Consciousness: is a person’s subjective awareness, including thoughts,
perceptions, experiences of the world and self-awareness
What is infradian rhythm?
- Infradian rhythm: any rhythm that occurs over a period of time longer than a
day
oEx. The menstrual cycle
What is the circadian rhythm?
- Circadian rhythms: are internally driven daily cycles of approx. 24 hours
affecting physiological and behavioral processes
What is one key brain structure?
- Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): communicates signals about light levels with
the pineal gland
What is entrainment?
- Entrainment: when biological rhythms become synchronized to external cues
such as light, temperature, or even a clock
What are endogenous rhythms?
- Endogenous rhythms: biological rhythms that are generated by our body
independent of external cues such as light
What is polysomnography?
- Polysomnography: a set of objective measurements use to examine
physiological variables during sleep
What are electroencephalograms?
- EEG: a device that measures brain waves using sensors attached to the scalp
-Go through 4 stages:
1. Brain waves slow down and become higher in amplitude (theta
waves)
2. Brain waves continue to slow; includes sleep spindles (clusters of
high-frequency but low-amplitude waves) and K complexes (small
groups of larger amplitude waves)
3. Brain waves continue to slow down and assume a new form (delta
waves) (large, looping waves that are high-amplitude and low-
frequency)
4. Time the sleeper will be difficult to be awaken
What is REM sleep?
- REM sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves,
inhibited body movement, and rapid eye movements (REM)
-AKA paradoxical sleep
-The first 4 stages are known as non-REM sleep (NREM)
What is the restore and repair hypothesis?
- Restore and repair hypothesis: the idea that the body needs to restore energy
levels and repair any wear and tear experienced during the day’s activities
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What is the preserve and protect hypothesis?
- Preserve and protect hypothesis: suggests that two or more adaptive functions
of sleep are preserving energy and protecting the organism from harm
What is the significance of daylight savings time?
-Time in the spring costs workers on average 40 minutes of sleep and
significantly increases work-related injuries on the Monday following the
time change
-Changing the time in the fall produces no significant changes in sleep or
injuries
What is sleep deprivation?
- Sleep deprivation: occurs when an individual cannot or does not sleep
-Can be due to an external factor that is out of your control (e.g. noisy
neighbors) or some self-inflicted factor (e.g. studying)
What is sleep displacement?
- Sleep displacement: occurs when an individual is prevented from sleeping at
the normal time although she/ he may be able to sleep earlier or later in the
day than usual
What is jet lag?
- Jet lag: is the discomfort a person feels when sleep cycles are out of
synchronization with light and darkness
What is the Interpretation of Dreams?
-Sigmund Freud (1899)
-Viewed dreams as unconscious expressions od wish fulfillment
What is manifest content?
- Manifest content: involves the images and storylines that we dream about
What is latent content?
- Latent content: the actual symbolic meaning of a dream built on suppressed
sexual or aggression urges
What is activation-synthesis hypothesis?
- Activation-synthesis hypothesis: suggests that dreams arise from brain activity
originating from bursts of excitatory messages from the pons, a part of the
brain stem
What is insomnia?
- Insomnia: a disorder characterized by an extreme lack of sleep
-Defined not in terms of the hours of sleep, but rather in terms of the degree
to which a person feels rested during the day
-It is often thought of as a single disorder, it is more appropriate to think of it
in the plural
oOnset insomnia: occurs when a person has difficulty falling asleep (30
minutes or more)
oMaintenance insomnia: occurs when an individual cannot easily return
to sleep after waking in the night
oTerminal insomnia/ early morning insomnia: situation in which a
person wakes up too early, sometimes hours too early, and cannot
return to sleep
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