PSYCH101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget

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16 Aug 2016
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PSYCH 101- Chapter 10 (Lifespan Development) Notes
What is developmental psychology?
- Developmental psychology: the study of human physical, cognitive, social and
behavioral characteristics across the lifespan
What are cross-sectional designs?
- Cross-sectional designs: used to measure and compare samples of people at
different ages at a given point in time
What is longitudinal design?
- Longitudinal design: follows the development of the same set of individuals
through time
What are cohort effects?
- Cohort effects: differences between people that result from being born in
different time periods
What is a sensitive time period?
- Sensitive time period: a window of time during which exposure to a specific
type of environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a
specific ability
What is a zygote?
- Zygote: the initial cell formed when the nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse
What is the germinal stage?
- Germinal stage: the first phase of parental development, which spans from
conception to two weeks
What is the embryonic stage?
- Embryonic stage: spans weeks two through eight, during which time the
embryo begins developing major physical structures such as the heart and
nervous system, as well as the beginnings of arms, legs, hands and feet
What is the fetal stage?
- Fetal stage: spans week eight through birth, during which time the skeletal,
organ, and nervous systems become more developed and specialized
The human brain development:
-Extremely lengthy process
-Beginnings can be seen in the embryonic stages
-During final months of pregnancy, myelination occurs
What are teratogens?
- Teratogens: substances, such as drugs or environmental toxins, that impair
the process of development
-Ex. Thalidomide, which is a sedative that was hailed as a wonder drug for
helping pregnant women deal with morning sickness during their pregnancy
oCaused miscarriages
oSever birth defects blindness, deafness
oPhocomelia where hands and feet or both emerged from their
shoulders or hips directly functioning more like flippers than limbs
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What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
- Fetal alcohol syndrome: involves abnormalities in mental functioning, growth,
and facial development in the offspring of women who use alcohol during
pregnancy
Facts about babies and mothers along with the fathers
-Prefer the voice of their mother rather than any other female voice
-If a story is read to them when they are in the womb, they tend to like that
story more when they are out of the womb
-For the fathers, the babies prefer other male voices more than the fathers the
first 4 months a least
-Babies can only see up to their moms face when breast feeding
-It takes about 6 months for the babies to have their full 20/20 vision
-Within one hour of the babies birth, they begin to imitate facial expressions
-Babies can sense the difference between the mothers breast milk and a
strangers
What are reflexes?
- Reflexes: involuntary muscular reactions to specific types of stimulation
What is synaptogenesis?
- Synaptogenesis: describes the forming of new synaptic connections
-Occurs at blinding speed through infancy and childhood
What is cognitive development?
- Cognitive development: the study of changes in memory, thought, and
reasoning processes that occur throughout the lifespan
-Jean Piaget focused on cognitive development from infancy through early
adolescence
oExplaining how different ways of thinking and reasoning develop
oTwo ways: assimilation and accommodation
-Piaget revealed that cognitive development passes through 4 stages from
birth through early adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, and the formal operational stage
What is assimilation?
- Assimilation: a consecutive process, whereby people fit new information into
belief systems they already process
What is accommodation?
- Accommodation: a creative process whereby people modify their belief
structures based on experience
What is the sensorimotor stage?
- Sensorimotor stage: from birth to two years, during which infants’ thinking
about and exploration of the world are based on immediate sensory (ie.
Seeing, feeling) and motor (ie. Grabbing, mouthing) experiences
-Earliest period of cognitive development Piaget
What is object permanence?
- Object permanence: the ability to understand that objects exist even when
they cannot be directly perceived
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