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Soc 101 Week Three Readings.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Semester
Winter

Description
Soc 101 Week Three Readings-Chapter 5 Chapter Five: Culture -Culture: a complex collection of values, beliefs behaviours and material objects shared by a group and passed on from one generation to the next Origins of Culture Why cannot determine the ‘start’ of culture? 1. Little material evidence 2. Much of culture is non-material 3. Development interconnected with culture -Social Life: hominid ancestors far back as 4.4 million years ago -Parental Care: Larger brains, evolution of earlier birth (before more time in womb) -Pair Bonding: Male/Female 2.4 to 1.9 million years ago -Subsistence: hunting tools 2.6 million years ago -Environment Adaptation: caves, fire and sewing -Thought language, art and religion Defining Features of Culture  Culture is learned: language, attitudes, values, world viewslearned  Culture is shared: as people interact they share  Culture is transmitted: passed from generation to generation  Culture is cumulative: as members refine beliefs the build on cultural foundations  Culture is human: animals are social but not cultural -Material Culture: tangible artifacts and physical objects found in a given culture -Non-Material Culture: intangible abstract components of a society including values and norms -Values: beliefs about ideal goals and behaviours that serve as standards for social life -Norms: culturally defined rules that outline appropriate behaviours -Folkways: Informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving -Mores: norms that carry a strong sense of social importance and necessity -Law: type of norm that is formally defined and enacted in legislation -Sanction: a penalty for norm violation or a reward for norm adherence Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism -Ethnocentrism: tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to all others -Cultural Relativism: Appreciation that all cultures have intrinsic worth and should be evaluated and understood on their own terms -Culture Shock: the feeling of disorientation, alienation, depression and loneliness experienced when entering a new culture  Honeymoon: admiration and awe  Crisis: Different values, signs leading to confusion  Recovery: understanding, recognizing values  Adjustment: function effectively with anxieties and stress Language and Culture -Symbol: something that stands for of represents something else -Language: a shared symbol system of rules and meanings that governs the production and interpretation of speech Language Extinction  When language is lost the culture loses its most important survival mechanism  700 languages presents today and over half of them in risk of extinction in the next 100 years  Each time we lose language we lose knowledge  When a language dies so does related myths, folk songs, legends, poetry and belief systems  Demise of the world’s language hinders exploration of the human mind Does Language Define Thought?  Supir-Whorf Hypothesis: assertion that la
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