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Chapter 11

Chapter 11: Aftermath and Recovery

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University of Waterloo
SOC 201
Barry Mc Clinchey

CHAPTER 11: Aftermath and Recovery VICTIMIZATION AND SECONDARY VICTIMIZATION - After actual event of victimization, victim may report to police, and experience more victimization through the criminal justice system as it investigates the allegations - Secondary Victimization – being blamed for the attack o Most prevalent with victims of sexual assault – issue and question of consent - How and when the victim of sexual assault reports the crime is of key importance o Was victim calm, cool, and collected?  Less likely to be believed o Highly emotional?  Less likely to be responsible for the situation o Preset ideas of how victims should respond to victimization REACTIONS TO VICTIMIZATION: FEAR Fear of Crime - Fear of Crime: Response to threat, and the fear of being harmed (more so “fear of victimization”) - Fear of crime is higher than risk of victimization - Measuring judgment about crime, not the emotional response to crime or fear - Fear changes depending on the situation of a potential victim - Women are most worried about walking in parking garages after dark, then using public transportation after dark, then walking in their neighbourhood after dark Fear of Strangers - People are actually most likely to be victimize by people they know - Not just the fear of all strangers, but some specific type of stranger in this fear Social Consequences of Fear - PRO: preparation in warning us about danger, awareness - CON: stress and anxiety - Positive feedback: fear can not only enable decline but can also continue to add to the process o Fear  behavioural changes  lack of community cohesion  increased crime rates in the neighbourhood  more fear - Contagion effect: effects of fear spreading from person, to community, to other - Those who fear crime spend money to enhance their safety – alarms, dogs, self defence classes - Significant others: (coined by George Herbert Mead) refers to those people who serve as an individual’s close support network and values their opinion o i.e. immediate family, spouses, children, close friends, mentors, etc o If significant others are fearful  you’re fearful  others are fearful The Power of Fear - Fear can modify behaviour – restricting variety of movements and freedoms - “Curfew” – due to women’s fear of victimization, they restrict partaking in activating occurring at night Types of Fear - Direct fear: occurs as a result of actual victimization - Indirect fear: less intense, doesn’t involve being directly exposed to victimization - Ripple effect: occurs when people hear about the victimization of others - Concrete fear: fear of specific events, like fear of specific criminal victimization o i.e. women fear sexual assault, men fear being killed - Formless fear: more general, unfixed fear of victimization o i.e. overall anxiety about victimization Perspectives on Fear - Direct victimization: produces fear in the moment, in response to a specific situation - Indirect victimization: occurs as the result of direct victimization to another o Witnessing or hearing about victimization o Vicarious victim, feels victimized by learning of the victimization of another - Actual direct victim: person who experiences the actual victimization o Possibly suffer from PTSD as a result - Actual indirect victim: traumatized from witnessing assault, but not in direct response to actual victimization - Vicarious direct victim: no direct exposure to the victimization but is strongly affected by learning the event, that he/she experiences the same intensity
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