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2 - Pre-Reading (Life As We Define It).docx

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BIOL 111
Lynn Norman

Sajad Niyyati 21 Life As We Define ItPage 30A Definition of Life A list of attributes found in most earthly life forms includes growing movement reproduction response to external environmental stimuli and Metabolism Metabolism is all of the chemical processes that happen in the cell including breakdown of substances to produce energy the synthesis of substances necessary for life and the excretion of wastes generated by these processes The above definition of life can apply to non living organisms ie fire Also some of the above definitions do not apply to some living organisms Homeostasis Having a constant internal environment despite an ever changing external environment ex Body temperaturerequires complex feedback mechanisms between multiple sensory and physiological systemsonly possible in living organisms Evolution is also possible in living organismschange in physical characteristics over time Page 4647The Tree of Life and Evolutionary Theory Species is the types of living organisms 5 to 100 million species on earth Likeliest number is 10 millionTheoryofEvolutionEukaryoticHavingcellwithmembraneboundnucleiProkaryotesAmicroscopicsinglecelledorganismthatdoesnthaveadistinctnucleuswithamembraneExplanation for shared characteristics of all species unity of life is that all living organisms share a common ancestor that arose on earth 4 billion years ago The divergence and differences are results of changes in characteristics of populations in response to environmental changes natural selection and chance The above ideas are known as Theory of Evolution Natural Selection Some variations in organisms increase their chance of survival and reproduction A genetic trait that increases survival and reproduction should become more prevalent over time and less successful variants should eventually be lost from the population Eukaryotes can be grouped primarily into freeliving single celled organisms and the three multicellular groupsplants fungi and animals 1
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