Own Reading Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes.docx

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Political Science
POLI 240
Christopher Erickson

Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Own Reading: Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes Introduction - Nature is by God - Artificial Animal is by human imitation - Mechanical thinking  Heart = Spring, Nerves = Strings, Joints = Wheels  Sovereignty = Artificial Soul  The Magistrates, Officers of Judiciary and Execution = Joints  The Wealth and the Riches = Strength Chapter 1: Of Man - Thought of a Man (Singly): Representation of an object that we touch with our sense.  this is the ultimate origin of concept for concept is derived from what we sense - Object ≠image (fancy) but sense ≠original fancy (image) Chapter 2: Of Imagination - An object will always be in motion unless something stops it. A stationary object will always remain stationary unless something moves it - Imagination:  A term by the Latin  About an object that is removed from our sight but we can still remember the image is called imagination  so, Imagination is a decaying sense  However, the Greeks call it Fancy  Decaying sense is imagination  When the sense is fading, old, and past = Memory. Ultimately, Imagination = Memory  Memory of many things = Experience  To qualify as an imagination, the object must be perceived by sense  Simple Imagination: when imagine things he has seen before  Compounded: a combination of 2 separate images (e.g: Centaure). So, when a person imagine himself and imagine an action of others, it is called a Fiction of the mind.  Imagination that sleeps is called Dreams - Hobbes believe that those committing witchcraft were justly punished for the false belief they have - Skeptic of the education about “Fayries” and “walking Ghosts” by the use of Exorcism, of Crosses, of Holy Water and other such ‘inventions” - Quote: “But evill men under pretext that God can do any thing, are so bold as to say any thing when it serves their turn, though they think it untrue”  Hobbes is against anyone who uses religion for their own sake - Hobbes’ opinion on God and Evil: good thoughts are powered into a man, by God, and Evil ones by the Devil - Some say: Species of things  received by Sense  deliver to the Common-sense  delivers to the Fancy  to the Memory  to the Judgment Questions: - What’s Fancy? Words: - Apparence (appearance) Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Chapter 3: Of the Consequence or TRAYNE (Train) of Imaginations - Mental discourse = Train of Thoughts  To distinguish it from discourse in words - 2 types of Mental Discourse: 1) Unguided without Design: inconstant, no passionate thought, the thoughts wander and seem unrelated – e.g: question about Roman Pence which is totally unrelated 2) Regulated by some desire and design – a thinking that has a goal – “respice finem”: an object which your thought is directed to think of ways to attain it. There are 2 types of regulated train of thoughts:  When something occurs, we seek to find the causes or means that produce it. This is said to be common to Man and Beast.  When we imagine things, we think of ways to use it when we have it – this is caused by: hunger, thirst, lust, and anger. - Rememberance – Calling to mind = Reminiscentia = Re-conning of our former actions  This is a method whereby the person revisits the same place at the same time by using his memory. - Prudence is a Presumption of the Future contracted from the experience of time past - Human’s imagination is Finite. To say that something is infinite implies that we have no knowledge of that very thing  so, God’s name is mentioned to show our honor towards him  Therefore, no man can imagine anything except if he obtained it somewhere, then only he is able to make conception about anything Chapter 4: Of Speech - The First author of speech was God which then instructed Adam how to name the objects that were presented to him - General use of Speech is to transfer Mental Discourse  Verb / Train of Thoughts  Train of Words - 2 Convenience: 1) Notes of remembrance (preventing us from forgetting) 2) To signify what humans conceive, think of each matter, desire or fear  it allows humans to make connection - Special use of Speech: 1) To Register: to find the cause of anything present or past 2) To show others the knowledge which we have attained, to counsel and to teach one another 3) To make known to others our wills, and purposes 4) To please and delight ourselves, and others, by playing with our words, for pleasure or ornament, innocently - The abuse of Speech: 1) When thoughts are registered wrongly due to the inconsistency of the significant of the words used  as the result, the concept established is wrong 2) Use of words metaphorically, that is in other sense that what it is established for. As a result, it deceives others 3) When by words, one declares that to be their will, which is not 4) Using them to grieve (hurt?) one another  sometimes, humans hurt one another by the means of Speech - Universal Name: can be applied to many things due to its degree of similarity - Proper Name: only has meaning and can be attributed to that particular situation only - Example of a man who has no use of speech (born and remain dumb and deaf) Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis  The person won’t know how to differentiate between a right-angled triangle and a triangle. As for the person who can make use of words, he can easily make this conclusion - Without words, it’s hard to do arithmetic - A man that seeks precise truth, had need to remember what every name he uses stands for and to place it accordingly  Definition – need to check definitions of former authors and to get it corrected as much as possible. Failure to do so will cause men to be led into absurdities which consequently affect their foundation of understanding  The right definition of names  leads to the first use of speech: the Acquisition of Science  The wrong definition of names  leads to the first abuse; false and senseless occur - For between true science, and erroneous doctrines, ignorance is in the middle (p. 23) - Subject to Names: can be added, be subtracted and leave remainder - The Latines  Money = rationes  Accounting = ratiocination  Bills or books = Items (in English) = Nomina (in Latin) - Logos (Greek word) is applicable to reasoning and speech  To the Greeks, there is no speech without reasoning  Syllogisme = the act of reasoning – an act of summing up of the consequences of one saying to another - 4 Diversity of Names: 1) Related to a living body/matter: sensible, rational, hot, cold, moved, quiet 2) Related to accident or quality for which we experience it: for being moved, for being so long, for being hot, etc. 2.1) Then, for these situation we create names, that is, we can use it to describe what we are experiencing by assigning other names: for living = life, for moved = motion, for hot = heat 3) Related to the Properties of our Bodies: when anything is seen by us = Sight, Idea of it in the fancy = colour, sound = anything is heard 4) Giving Names to Names and to Speeches which is the synonym of Names and Speeches  Names of Names: general, universal, special, equivocal  Names of Speeches: Narration, Syllogism, Sermon, Oration, Affirmation, Interrogation, Commandment - Other kinds of names: Names of Negative (nothing, no man, infinite, indocile, three want four) - Others are also Names but insignificant sounds. This can happen when: 1) They are new and yet their meaning is not explained by Definition. These terms are coined by Schoolmen and Philosophers 2) When the names are contradictory and inconsistent: incorporeal substance  the two names of which it is composed when put together signifies nothing at all. E.g: to say a rounded square that doesn’t make any sense at all. Other example: in- powered virtue, in-blown virtue - To sum:  We may conceive (interpret) the same things differently  Different constitutions of body, and prejudices of opinion, gives everything a color of our different passions Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis  So, when making reasoning, one has to be careful with the words and definitions used. For example, 1) one might call it Wisdom, but another call it fear. 2) one calls it cruelty, and another justice. 3) one prodigality, one magnamity. 4) one gravity, another stupidity  So, for such names, there can never be true grounds of a ‘ratiocination’ just like Metaphors and Tropes. But, at the very least, they profess inconstancy but not the aforementioned examples. Chapter 5: Of Reason, and Science - The act of summing, subtracting, dividing etc can be done to all manner of things that can be added together, and taken out of another - Regardless of what place they are, when there is a place for adding and subtracting , there is place for reasoning - Reckoning = is simply adding and subtracting - Reason = reckoning of the consequences of general names agreed upon for the making and signifying of our thoughts  making conclusions of something - The use and end of reason is to proceed from one consequence to another  It is not to conclude, or arriving at a definite truth that deviates from the Definition  There can be no certainty for conclusion without a certainty of all those affirmations and negations which the conclusion was based on - Pg. 27: Error – occurs when one reckons (calculates) without the use of words  Upon the sight of something, we conjecture (make assumption) of what was likely to occur eventhough it doesn’t occur and what is going to proceed eventhough it doesn’t proceed  Even the most prudent (cautious) men are subject to this - Error = Absurdity = Senseless speech  Words whereby we conceive nothing but the sound = Absurd, Insignificant, and Nonsense - Theorems / Aphorismes allow one to reckon in all other things but this possible by the privilege of Absurdity.  This can be mostly found in Philosophy  is Hobbes criticizing Philosophy? - Causes of Absurd conclusion: 1) The Want of Method: when making conclusion, they use the wrong concept to arrive at that point 2) The giving of names of bodies  to accidents (qualities of a thing) or of bodies  to accidents. E.g: phantasms (body) are spirits (accidents) / faith is infused 3) The giving of the names of the accidents of bodies without us  to the accidents of our own bodies. E.g: the sound is in the air  To be truth, I don’t get the difference between 2) and 3) 4) To the giving of the names of bodies  to names or speeches. E.g: a living creature is Genus (genius?)  is it like attributing human characteristics to abstract stuffs. Something like personification 5) To the giving of the names of accidents  to names and speeches. E.g: the nature of a thing is its definition, a man’s command is his will 6) To the use of Metaphors, Tropes and other Rhetorical figures instead of words proper  need to refer to the Internet the meaning of this point 7) To names that signify nothing, but are taken up and learned by rote from the schools. E.g: hypostatical, transubstantiate, consubstantiate, eternal-Now I guess, these are all scientific words? Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis  Those who can avoid all 7 habits that lead to absurd conclusions, it will be hard for them to fall into one - Reason ≠ Sense and Memory but Reason = is attained by Diligence  Suitable in giving Names  By getting a good and orderly method in proceeding from the Elements which are names, to assertions made by connection of one of them to another and so to syllogisms, which are the connections of one assertion to another, till we come to a knowledge of all the consequences of names apperta
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