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PSYC 100 - 9 Developmental Psychology.docx

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PSYC 100
Peter Graf

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AP Psychology Tiffane Mak Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology – the study of the physical, cognitive and social changes throughout the lifespan Three issues 1. Nature vs. Nurture : How do our genetic inheritance (nature) and our experience in our environment (nurture) affect our development? 2. Continuity vs. Stages: Is development a gradual continuous process (riding an escalator), or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages (climbing staircase)? 3. Stability vs. Change: Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do they change significantly as we age? Prenatal Development • Zygote – the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo nd • Embryo – the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization -> 2 month • Fetus – developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth • Neonate – newborn infant • Teratogens – agents (ex: chemicals/viruses) that can reach the embryo/fetus during prenatal development and cause harm • Fetal alcohol syndrome – physical/cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a heavy drinking pregnant woman Infancy and Childhood Physical development (Motor/sensory development) • Rooting reflex – when touched on the cheek, baby will turn toward the touch, open the mouth and search for the nipple • Sucking reflex – object placed in baby’s mouth, infant will suck on it • Grasping reflex – object placed into baby’s palm/foot, will try to grasp the object with fingers/toes • Moro reflex – when startled, baby will fling limbs out, quickly retract, making himself small Babinsky reflex – when a baby’s foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes • Developing brain – overproduces neurons; emergence of motor skills and memory • Maturation – biological growth enabling orderly changes in behaviour (uninfluenced by experience) o Ex. standing -> walking; babbling -> talking • Motor development – Maturation, not experience o Roll over -->Sitting supported -->Crawling -->Walking AP Psychology Tiffane Mak Cognitive development  Cognition – all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating • Schema – concept or framework that organizes and interprets information • Assimilation – interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas • Accommodation – adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive development  • Object permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived • Conservation –principle that properties (mass, volume, and number) remain the same as form changes • Egocentrism – (the preoperational child’s) difficulty taking another’s point of view • Theory of mind – people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states o about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviour these might predict. Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to 2 years Sensorimotor - Object permanence -Experiencing the world through senses and - Stranger anxiety actions (looking, touching, mouthing, grasping) 2 to 6/7 years Preoperational - Pretend play -Representing things with words and images; - Egocentrism use intuitive rather than logical reasoning - Language development 7 to 11 years Concrete operational - Conservation -Thinking logically about concrete events; - Mathematical transformations grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operation 12 to adulthood Formal operational - Abstract logic -Abstract reasoning - Potential for mature moral reasoning Social development • Stranger anxiety – the fear of strangers that infants commonly display (~8 months) • Attachment – an emotional tie with another person; (Harlow, Ainsworth) o Young children seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation • Imprinting (Lorenz) –certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life • Critical period – an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Baumrind’s Parenting Styles • Authoritarian – Parents who impose rules and expect unquestioned obedience • Authoritative (democratic) – parents who are both demanding and responsive. Setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons, encouraging open discussion, exceptions • Permissive – Submissive to their children’s desires, make few demands, little punishment AP Psychology Tiffane Mak • Neglectful – completely uninvolved Adolescence • Adolescence –from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence Physical development • Begins with puberty (sexual maturation, can reproduce) - 11 yrs old girls; 13 yrs old boys. • Primary sexual characteristics – Reproductive organs, external genitalia – develop rapidly • Secondary sexual characteristics – Breast, hips, facial hair, deepening voice, pubic hair, armpit hair • Menarche – first menstrual period Cognitive development • Adolescents’ ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness • Developing Reasoning Power o Piaget – adolescents can handle abstract problems (ex. formal operations) o Can judge good vs. evil, truth vs. justice, think about God in deeper terms • Developing Morality o Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning  Moral dilemmas (ex. steal medicine to save a loved one’s life) o Moral feeling – more than moral thinking  When posed with simulated moral dilemmas, the brain’s emotional areas are only lighted up when the nature of the dilemmas were emotion driven. o Moral action – doing the right thing  Develop empathy for others, self-discipline for themselves to restrain their impulses Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Level 1 – Preconventional – before age 9 – self-interest; obey to avoid punishment or gain rewards Stage 1 - focus on direct consequence - negative actions will result in punishment - positive actions will result in a
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