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PSYC 100 - 10 Personality.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Peter Graf

Personality • Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; o The techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. • Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. • Personality – a person’s general style of interacting with the world o Individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting o Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego). Personality Structure • Unconscious: (Freud) a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. (Contemporary psychologists) information processing of which we are unaware. • Id: (Unconscious) contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, biological impulses. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. • Ego: (partly conscious, unconscious), “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. • Superego: (Preconscious –outside awareness but accessible) – represents values, social restraints, and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Personality Development • Oedipus complex: according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father. • Identification: the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. • Fixation: according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were resolved. Psychosexual Stages • Psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. Stage Focus Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth – sucking, biting, chewing Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure
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