• Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to
unconscious motives and conflicts;
o The techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose
and interpret unconscious tensions.
• Free association: a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes
and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
• Personality – a person’s general style of interacting with the world
o Individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, acting
o Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our
biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).
• Unconscious: (Freud) a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings,
and memories. (Contemporary psychologists) information processing of which we are
• Id: (Unconscious) contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to
Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, biological impulses. The id
operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
• Ego: (partly conscious, unconscious), “executive” part of personality that, according to
Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates
on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring
pleasure rather than pain.
• Superego: (Preconscious –outside awareness but accessible) – represents values,
social restraints, and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future
• Oedipus complex: according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and
feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father.
• Identification: the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their
parents’ values into their developing superegos. • Fixation: according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier
psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were resolved.
• Psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic,
latency, genital) during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct
Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth – sucking, biting,
Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure