PSYC 101 Chapter Notes -Optic Nerve, Depressant, Schizophrenia

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Published on 29 Sep 2011
School
UBC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 101
PSYCHOLOGY 101: INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY
Lecture 2: A brief history of psychology
Biological and Cognitive Psychology:
Private experience (memory, emotions, imagination) are products of physical laws
As a science, it must be based on the ass. that behaviour is strictly subject to physical laws
‘psyche’ = (soul) + ‘ology’ = (study of)
Psychology: scientific study of behaviour, the mind and the brain
Cognitive psych: study of cognitive (mental) processes
Biological psych: study of biology that gives rise to cognition and behaviour
HISTORY
Descartes (1596-1650)
Rationalism: finding truth through reason
Reflexes: spinal cord (no need for brain or mind); response to stimuli, brain can control them
Dualism: brain gives rise to the mind but the mind is not a part of the world (follows diff. laws)
Believed in free will, suggested causal link b/w mind & physical housing
Role of pineal gland: action = body moves gland to cause fluid to flow through certain nerves, interaction point
b/w mind and body (only non-bilateral thing in the brain)
Assumed that the world was purely mechanical: challenged the church
John Locke (1632-1704)
Empiricism: rigorous pursuit of knowledge through observation and experience
“Tabula rosa”: born as blank slates; accumulate experience and knowledge
What about instincts, language acquisition and reflexes?
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Materialism: reality can only be known through understanding of physical world (mind is a machine)
Brain gives rise (is the material of) the mind, rejected the ‘mind’; a non quantifiable variable (reason)
Pierre Flourens (1774-1867)
Experimental ablation of animal parenchyma (brain)
Damaged rat brains; demonstrated that division of the brain= diff functions
Franz Josef Gall (1758-1828)
Phrenology: measurement of the human skull (shape, weight, size)
Skull growth tracking; personality theory
Localization of cognitive faculties to diff parts
Paul Broca (1824-1880)
Patient Tan: ‘tan’ was the only word he could say despite being able to understand normally
Lesion in frontal lobe; localization of sp production
Gustav Fritsch, Eduard Hitzig, Wilder Penfield (1891-1976)
Electric brain stimulation: mapped the brain, motor, memory, tough
Discovery of motor and sensory maps
Temporal lobe stimulation and memory
Johannes Muller (1802-1858)
Doctrine of specific nerve energies; neurons about diff things work the same but can be distinguished
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PSYCHOLOGY 101: INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY
Same/all electric current/impulse but diff channels (optic vs auditory nerves)
If the brain can recog diff nature of sensory input, then brain may also be specialized
Herman von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
Speed of neural activity (27m/s)
Slower than electricity b/c of synapse (which is chemical, not electrical)
Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934)
Golgi stain
Nervous system is made up of many individual cells
William Wundt (1832-1920)
First psych lab in Leipzig in 1879
Structuralism: breaking down mental processes to the most basic components (reduction)
Introspection: study components of consciousness: ideas and sensation, look inside yourself to describe
memories, perceptions and cognitive processes
William James (1842-1910)
Functionalism: cognitive abilities: what do they do, why is it useful and how are they adaptive
First complete volume in psychology
G. Stanley hall (1844-1924)
First US psych lab at john Hopkins (1881)
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
Gestalt
Perception based theory; cognitive processes should be understood by studying their organization, not their
elements (holistic perception)
Muller-lyer line and ground/foreground illusions reveal this
Freudian
The unconscious: origin of psychological illnesses
Not aware of everything but it guides our behaviour, no real biological aspect
Behaviourism (Skinner, Watson)
‘Black box’: rejected the mind, tabula rosa
Study of relation b/w ppl’s enviro and their beha w/out hypothetical events occurring in their heads
Stimulus-response associations: Little Albert: reinforcement learning, fears are learned
Supports conditioning (pavlov’s dogs) and learned behaviours
Cognitive
Sir Frederic Bartlett: False memories
Jean Piaget: Kid’s errors: there is an age where these roadblocks are passed, insight to the mind: all kids make
the same mistakes no matter their nationality
Kurt Lewin: Subjective experience
Noam Chomsky: language production: consistency in ability to learn despite conditions
Geroge Miller: limited mental resources
Cognitive neuropsychology
Paul Broca; patient Tan
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PSYCHOLOGY 101: INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY
Phineas Gage: damage to orbital frontal cortex = change in personality (front lobe personality)
Alexander Luria: founder of neuropsychology; studied patients w/ brain injuries from battlefield
Patient HM: anterograde amnesia; inability to create new memories
Brain plasticity and recovery of function
Phantom limb syndrome: feeling sensations in your now non-existent limbs
Reorganization of the brain: using parts take over other parts of the brain (touch face but you’ll your hand)
Cognitive neuroscience
Michael Gazzangia: founder of neuroscience
PET scanner: neurochemicals to tag chemicals in the brain in order to track blood flow and neural activity
MRI scanner: for structure and later for function
Lecture 3: Scientific method and research design
Research approach in psychology: study a subset of people (sample) to make statements about all similalr indies
of interest (population), only sample b/c its cheaper, easier and more practical
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Identify a problem
Most research builds: was this study flawed? Confirm a finding? Address limitations in previous work?
Some work is completely novel
Form a hypothesis
Developing a theory: can change, they are falsifiable (can be right or wrong)
Forming a hypothesis: ‘If, Then ‘ statement, specific and quantifiable/measureable
Designing a study
Naturalistic observation: no intervention, no control (pure observation)
Case study: extensive in-depth study of a specific case; results in generalization
Survey: large standardized sample (stats/data/anonymous), but contain little insight, may not be completed
honestly, restrictions in range of questions, incomplete, self-selections
Correlation study: false correlations are common, do not imply caustic rela., no manipulationjust relating
Experiment…
Experiments (key elements)
Any changes should/will be manipulated on purpose (control)
Variables: subject, independent and dependent
Confound v: varies along w/ independent variable thus rendering the experiment internally invalid (time)
Validity (every bullseye) and reliability (always right)
Ecological validity: ecological validity: is it comparable to real life situations/nature
Choosing participants and gathering data
Sampling from a population: participant selection and assignment, control from imp subject variables
Expectation and bias:
o Hawthorne effect: subjects alter or improve behaviour in response to being studied
o Demand characteristics: cue that makes participants aware of what the experimenter expects/wants
o Blind experiments: participants don’t know what they are studying
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Document Summary

Psyche" = (soul) + ology" = (study of) Private experience (memory, emotions, imagination) are products of physical laws. As a science, it must be based on the ass. that behaviour is strictly subject to physical laws. Psychology: scientific study of behaviour, the mind and the brain. Cognitive psych: study of cognitive (mental) processes. Biological psych: study of biology that gives rise to cognition and behaviour. Reflexes: spinal cord (no need for brain or mind); response to stimuli, brain can control them. Dualism: brain gives rise to the mind but the mind is not a part of the world (follows diff. laws) Believed in free will, suggested causal link b/w mind & physical housing. Role of pineal gland: action = body moves gland to cause fluid to flow through certain nerves, interaction point b/w mind and body (only non-bilateral thing in the brain) Assumed that the world was purely mechanical: challenged the church.