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Psychology 101: Introduction to Cognitive & Behavioural Psychology Class & Textbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 101
Professor
Michael De Souza

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PSYCHOLOGY 101 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGYLecture 2 A brief history of psychology Biological and Cognitive PsychologyPrivate experience memory emotions imagination are products of physical lawsAs a science it must be based on the ass that behaviour is strictly subject to physical lawspsychesoulologystudy ofPsychology scientific study of behaviour the mind and the brainCognitive psych study of cognitive mental processesBiological psych study of biology that gives rise to cognition and behaviourHISTORYDescartes 15961650Rationalism finding truth through reasonReflexes spinal cord no need for brain or mind response to stimuli brain can control themDualism brain gives rise to the mind but the mind is not a part of the world follows diff lawsBelieved in free will suggested causal link bw mindphysical housingRole of pineal gland actionbody moves gland to cause fluid toflowthrough certain nerves interaction point bw mind and bodyonly nonbilateral thing in the brainAssumed that the world was purely mechanical challenged the churchJohn Locke 16321704Empiricism rigorous pursuit of knowledge through observation and experienceTabula rosa born as blank slates accumulate experience and knowledge What about instincts language acquisition and reflexesThomas Hobbes 15881679Materialism reality can only be known through understanding of physical world mind is a machineBrain gives rise is the material of the mind rejected the mind a non quantifiable variable reasonPierre Flourens 17741867Experimental ablation of animal parenchyma brainDamaged rat brains demonstrated that division of the brain diff functionsFranz Josef Gall 17581828Phrenology measurement of the human skull shape weight sizeSkull growth tracking personality theoryLocalization of cognitive faculties to diff partsPaul Broca 18241880Patient Tan tan was the only word he could say despite being able to understand normallyLesion in frontal lobe localization of sp productionGustav Fritsch Eduard Hitzig Wilder Penfield 18911976Electric brain stimulation mapped the brain motor memory toughDiscovery of motor and sensory mapsTemporal lobe stimulation and memoryJohannes Muller 18021858Doctrine of specific nerve energies neurons about diff things work the same but can be distinguished PSYCHOLOGY 101 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY Sameall electric currentimpulse but diff channels optic vs auditory nervesIf the brain can recog diff nature of sensory input then brain may also be specialized Herman von Helmholtz 18211894Speed of neural activity 27msSlower than electricity bc of synapse which is chemical not electricalSantiago Ramon y Cajal 18521934Golgi stainNervous system is made up of many individual cellsWilliam Wundt 18321920First psych lab in Leipzig in 1879Structuralism breaking down mental processes to the most basic components reductionIntrospection study components of consciousness ideas and sensation look inside yourself to describe memories perceptions and cognitive processesWilliam James 18421910Functionalism cognitive abilities what do they do why is it useful and how are they adaptiveFirst complete volume in psychologyG Stanley hall 18441924First US psych lab at john Hopkins 1881SCHOOLS OF THOUGHTGestaltPerception based theory cognitive processes should be understood by studying their organization not their elements holistic perceptionMullerlyer line and groundforeground illusions reveal thisFreudianThe unconscious origin of psychological illnessesNot aware of everything but it guides our behaviour no real biological aspectBehaviourism Skinner WatsonBlack box rejected the mind tabula rosaStudy of relation bw ppls enviro and their beha wout hypothetical events occurring in their headsStimulusresponse associations Little Albert reinforcement learning fears are learnedSupports conditioning pavlovs dogs and learned behavioursCognitiveSir Frederic Bartlett False memoriesJean Piaget Kids errors there is an age where these roadblocks are passed insight to the mind all kids make the same mistakes no matter their nationalityKurt Lewin Subjective experienceNoam Chomsky language production consistency in ability to learn despite conditionsGeroge Miller limited mental resources Cognitive neuropsychologyPaul Broca patient Tan PSYCHOLOGY 101 INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE AND BEHAVRIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY Phineas Gage damage to orbital frontal cortexchange in personality front lobe personalityAlexander Luria founder of neuropsychology studied patients w brain injuries from battlefieldPatient HM anterograde amnesia inability to create new memories Brain plasticity and recovery of functionPhantom limb syndrome feeling sensations in your now nonexistent limbsReorganization of the brain using parts take over other parts of the brain touch face but youll your handCognitive neuroscienceMichael Gazzangia founder of neurosciencePET scanner neurochemicals to tag chemicals in the brain in order to track blood flow and neural activityMRI scanner for structure and later for function Lecture 3 Scientific method and research design Research approach in psychology study a subset of people sample to make statements about all similalr indies of interest population only sample bc its cheaper easier and more practicalTHE SCIENTIFIC METHODIdentify a problemMost research builds was this study flawed Confirm a finding Address limitations in previous workSome work is completely novelForm a hypothesisDeveloping a theory can change they are falsifiable can be right or wrongForming a hypothesis If Thenstatement specific and quantifiablemeasureableDesigning a studyNaturalistic observation no intervention no control pure observationCase study extensive indepth study of a specific case results in generalizationSurvey large standardized sample statsdataanonymous but contain little insight may not be completed honestly restrictions in range of questions incomplete selfselectionsCorrelation study false correlations are common do not imply caustic rela no manipulationjust relatingExperimentExperiments key elementsAny changes shouldwill be manipulated on purpose controlVariables subject independent and dependent Confound v varies along w independent variable thus rendering the experiment internally invalid timeValidity every bullseye and reliability always rightEcological validity ecological validity is it comparable to real life situationsnatureChoosing participants and gathering dataSampling from a population participant selection and assignment control from imp subject variablesExpectation and bias o Hawthorne effect subjects alter or improve behaviour in response to being studied o Demand characteristics cue that makes participants aware of what the experimenter expectswants o Blind experiments participants dont know what they are studying
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