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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 305
Professor
Sunaina Assanand

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Chapter 10: The Learning Perspective Classical Conditioning (CC) Classical conditioning: reactions can be acquired by associating one stimulus with another Requires 2 things: 1. Organism must already respond to some class of stimuli reflexively, reliably, and automatically 2. Stimuli in the reflex must become associated in time and place with another stimulus (the second stimuli is generally neutral at first) CC is the association of one stimulus with another 2 stimuli interacting to have one response Organisms learn to associate 2 stimuli 1 stimuli elicits a response that was originally elicited by the other stimulus CC discovered in late 1800’s by Ian Pavlov (Pavlov’s dog).  He studied salivary responses in dogs.  He fed dogs meat to stimulate saliva.  Dogs would start to salivate when they saw Pavlov, the dish, the food, etc Before conditioning:  Neutral stimulus (bell rings)  no response (dogs don’t salivate)  Unconditioned stimulus (steak)  unconditioned response – automatic reflexive response (dog salivates) During conditioning:  Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus (bell rings) plus unconditioned stimulus (steak) equals unconditioned response (dog salivates) **this is called a learning trial, continue to do this to cause classical conditioning.  Increasing intensity of the unconditioned stimulus will cause quicker conditioning After conditioning:  Conditioned stimulus (bell rings)  conditioned response (dog salivates) Classical conditioning is strongest when:  there are repeated pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli  The unconditioned stimulus is more intense  The sequence of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli involves forward pairing  Time interval between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is short Extinction: taking away the unconditioned stimulus causes reduction of unconditioned response; reduction in response Spontaneous recovery: wait a period of time then the conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response without the unconditioned stimulus Generalization: any stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus will elicit a response. This has an adaptive value Discrimination: response occurs to one conditioned stimulus but not others. This has an adaptive value Emotion conditioning: referring to classical conditioning in which the CRs are emotion reactions  Peoples likes and dislikes develop through this process; linking neutral stimulus to a pleasant even creates a “like” Instrumental Conditioning (AKA Operant Conditioning) Instrumental conditioning: active; the events that define it begin with behaviour ; the behaviour is not reflexive Law of effect: behaviour followed by pleasurable consequences will be more likely to occur; followed by negative consequence equal less likely to occur Habit hierarchy: the order of responses in the hierarchy derives from prior conditioning; some responses are very likely because they’re often followed by more satisfying states of affairs Primary reinforcer: organism finds it naturally pleasing; diminishes a biological need Secondary reinforcer: organism finds it pleasing once it is associated with a primary reinforce.  Used to gain something naturally pleasing.  Acquired reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforces through CC Positive reinforcement: doing something positive for positive response  adding something positive; giving something Negative reinforcement: removal of a negative stimulus  Not the same as punishment (weakening a response)  Strengthens a response, makes a response more frequent  Taking something away Aversive punishment (or positive punishment): positive because we are intervening causing a weakness in response  Positive = doing something opposed to taking it away Positive cost (or negative punishment): negative because we are taking something away Discriminative stimulus: signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences  Stimulus which turns the behaviour on and off Generalization: as you enter new settings and see new things you respond easily and automatically because there are similarities between the new settings and previous discriminative stimuli  A person will behave consistently across time and circumstances if discriminate stimuli stay fairly similar across the times and circumstances  Key stimulus qualities do stay the same across settings making a person’s action tendencies to stay the same across settings which makes it appear as though the person has a set of traits Extinction: weakening and disappearance of a response when reinforcement is no longer given  A behaviour that once led to a reinforce no longer does so Partial reinforcement effect: shows up when reinforcement stops  Take away the reinforce and a behaviour acquired by continuous reinforcement will go away quickly  A behaviour built in by partial reinforcement remains longer (it is more resistant to extinction) Reinforcement can change not only particular behaviours but whole dimensions of behaviour Social and Cognitive Variations Cognitive learning theories: emphasize mental events and social aspects of learning Social reinforcement: people are less affected by the reduction in a physical need, but more affected by social reinforcers (ex. Praise and approval)  The important reinforcers for people are social  Self-reinforcement: the idea that people may give themselves reinforcers after doing something they’ve set out to do. The idea that you react to your own behaviour with approval or disapproval o In responding to your actions with approval you reinforce yourself o In responding to your actions with disapproval you punish yourself Vicarious emotional arousal (aka. empathy): occurs when you observe someone feeling an intense emotion and experience the same feeling your-self  Isn’t the same as sympathy (a feeling of concern for someone else who is suffering)  When you empathize you feel the same feeling as the other person  Vicarious emotional arousal doesn’t constitute as learning but it creates opportunity for learning o Emotional conditioning feeling an emotion in the presence of a neutral stimulus can cause the stimulus to become capable of evoking a similar emotion. The emotion can be caused by something you experience directly but it can also arise vicariously o Vicarious classical conditioning: emotional arousal creates a possibility for classical conditioning Vicarious reinforcement: if you observe someone do something that is followed by reinforcement you become more likely to do the same thing yourself Outcome expectancy: the idea that people hold expectancies and that expectancies influence action Bandura thought that reinforces don’t strengthen action tendencies, but thought they did 2 things 1. By providing information about outcomes, reinforcers lead to expectancies about what actions are effective in what settings 2. Reinforcers provide the potential for future motivational states through anticipation of their recurrence in the future Bandura argued that people with problems generally know exactly what actions are needed to reach the desired outcome, but knowing what to do isn’t enough. You have to be confident that you are able to do the behaviour  Efficacy expectancy or self-efficacy: your confidence in having the ability to carry out a desired ac
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