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Chapter 2

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PSYC 314
Frances Chen

← Nervous System: complex network of interconnected nerve fibers that regulate, for example, the response to & recovery from stress. ← ← Notes: • Sympathetic NS= catabolic (breakdown of molecules for mobilization & energy) & activated during stress/ increases excitement EPI & NOREPI (catecholamines) • Parasympathetic NS= anabolic (conserves energy) & activated during digestion/ decreases excitement ACETYL • Mobilizing the Body: • 1. Directs nervous system stimulation to muscles etc. • 2. Effect on endocrine system • Interfaces with NS bi-directionally • Glands in the body releases hormones into bloodstream to affect organs. • Brain= command center; receives afferent (sensory) impulses & sends efferent (motor) impulses to external organs/ muscles. ← Hindbrain: medulla, pons & cerebellum. • Medulla= regulates heart rate, blood pressure & O2/CO2 levels in the body • Pons= controls respiration & links the hindbrain & midbrain. • Cerebellum=coordinates voluntary movement & maintains balance, equilibrium, muscle tone & posture. ← Midbrain: major pathway for sensory & motor impulse travelling from the forebrain to hindbrain; function coordination of visual & auditory reflexes. ← Forebrain: two main section—the diencephalon (= thalamus, hypothalamus) & telencephalon (=two hemispheres & four lobes of the cerebral cortex) • Thalamus= recognizes sensory stimuli & relays them to the cerebral cortex. • Hypothalamus= regulates water balance, blood pressure, respiration & the endocrine system (that releases hormones) • Cerebral cortex= two hemispheres; largest portion of the body involved in higher mental processes intellect, memory, personality. • Lobes= frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital; each have their own memory storage area & areas of association ← Limbic System: amygdala and hippocampus; important in stress & emotion responses. ← ← Neurotransmitters: chemicals in the NS that regulate functioning. ← 1. Catecholamines (EPI & NOREPI)= fight response (of the sympathetic NS) to increase heart rate & blood pressure & respiration ←  Important in individual responses to stress; repeated arousal is connected to coronary heart disease & hypertension. ← ← Disorders (NS):Epilepsy (=seizures); Alzheimer’s (=thinking & memory impairment); Huntington’s (=chronic mental & physical deterioration); Parkinson’s (=tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement) ← ← Endocrine System: made up of ductless glands that release hormones to stimulate target organs; controlled by the hypothalamus & pituitary gland; complements the NS by stimulating & inhibiting its activity. ← ← ← Notes: ← Anterior Pituitary: • TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone—growth, development & thyroid gland stimulation • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone—growth & secretions of adrenal cortex secretions= steroids & androgens/ estrogen) • STH (Somatotropic hormone—growth, regulates bone, muscle) • GH (Growth hormone—growth, development & secretion of gonads) • LH (Luteinizing hormone) & FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) necessary for sexual maturation. ← Posterior Pituitary: • ADH/ Vasopressin (controls water-absorbing ability of the kidneys) • Oxytocin (controls contraction during labor & lactation) ← ← Adrenal Glands: two small glands located on top of the kidneys that consist of the medulla & cortex. 1. Cortex= stimulated by ACTH from anterior pituitary to release steroids 2. Medulla= stimulated to release epinephrine & norepinephrine by the sympathetic NS ← SAM (Sympathetic-Adrenomedullary) ← Sympathetic NS Adrenal gland (adrenal medulla) release epinephrine (EPI) & norepinephrine (NOREPI) ← ← HPA (Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal) ← Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary (ACTH) Adrenal Cortex (Cortisol) ← ← What types of stress affect HPA system? Study ← - Social Self-Preservation Theory ← Role of social evaluative threat ← -Study of ballroom dancers ← -Salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after acute stressor. ← -Dancers have higher cortisol l
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