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Chapter 9-10

Chapter 9 - 10 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa

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Chapter 9
Archaic Homo Sapiens or Other Species
-Modern humans belong to species of Homo Sapiens
-Middle Pleistocence (800,000 – 120,000 years ago)
oHominins that differ from H eectus/ergaster yet did not have all the traits
of modern humans
Homo Heidelgergensis
-like erectus/ergaster
-face and brow ridges were large and the cranial vault was relatively thick
-brain size was larger, braincase was rounded, back of cranium was more rounded
-best candidate to be the common ancestor to both Neandertals and H Sapiens
-at various sites a number of hominin fossils have been found
-most consists of parts of one or very few individuals, the one exception of large
number of bones and teeth from Sierra de Atapuerca in Northern Spain where
heidelgergensis were found
o32 individuals of both sexes, juveniles as well as adults were deliberately
dumped into a deep cave known as Sima de los Huesoss (Pit of bones)
Levalloisian Technique
-Levalloisan technique: tool making technique by which three or four long
triangular flakes were detached from a specially prepared core.
-Another breakthrough was hafting
oAffixing of small stone bifaces and flakes in handles of wood - to make
and improve spears and knives
-These new composite tools involved three components
oAssembly of a handle or shaft
oStone insert
oBinding materials
-Another development in Africa, was the increasing use of yellow and red
pigments of iron oxide
oSignal rise in ritual activity like presaged burial of the dead
Neandetals
-First appearance is early as 800,000 years ago
-Neandertals are more closely related to one another than to modern humans
oAnalyzed mitochondria DNA
oStudies using mitochondria DNA indicate maternal DNA from
Neandertals is virtually absent in modern humans
-Neandertals and modern humans began to diver around 500,000 years ago
www.notesolution.com
-First publicized discovery in 1856, skeletal remains of a man were found in
Neander Valley in Germany near Dusseldorf
-The idea that Neandertals as caveman came from a skeleton found in 190i8 near
La Chapelle Aux Saints in France
oFound specimen was apelike and walked apelike howber was concluded
that was a elderly H sapien who had suffered from malnutrition
-C. Loring Brace observed that Neandertal features as a sloping forehead, unlike
back of the skull and a distinctively small, inward sloping mastoid process
(behind the ear) are commonly present in medieval skulls
-CC 1400 , projection of their noses and teeth and swollen appearance of mid
facial region due to large size of front teeth
-Bunlike bony mass provided for attachment of powerful neck muscles needed to
counteract the weight of a heavy face
-Both sex very muscular, short limbs
-Shoulder blades indicate importance of overarm and downward thrusting
movements- powerful arms
African, Chinese and Javanese Populations
-11 skulls were found in the 1930s near Solo river at Ngandong Java
-most famous fossil found in Africa was a 200,000 year old skull from Kabwe in
Zamia
Culture of Neandertals
Middle Paleolithic
-Date between about 166,000 and 40,000 years ago
-Middle part of the old stone age
Mousterian Tradition
-tool making tradition of the Neandertals featuring flake tools that are light and
smaller than earlier Levalloisian flake tools
-named after the Neandertal site of Le Moustier, France
-provides a much greater variety of tool types than previous traditions
ohandaxes, flakes, scrapers, borers, gravers, notched flakes for sawing and
shredding wood
o\with this new variety, humans intensified their utilization of food
resources and increased the availability and quality of clothing and shelter
-People were able to last in the winter and adapt to cold climate adaptations
-Animal fat was primary source of energy due to slower rate of metabolism
-Careful planning in hunting is shown at At La Quina in Western France where
massive animal bones are found at the base of the cliff.
oTrapped animals near cliffs and make them fall
-Complexity of tool kit needed for survival in a cold climate may have played a
role in lessening the mobility of the users
oGreater depth of deposits
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9 Archaic Homo Sapiens or Other Species - Modern humans belong to species of Homo Sapiens - Middle Pleistocence (800,000 120,000 years ago) o Hominins that differ from H eectusergaster yet did not have all the traits of modern humans Homo Heidelgergensis - like erectusergaster - face and brow ridges were large and the cranial vault was relatively thick - brain size was larger, braincase was rounded, back of cranium was more rounded - best candidate to be the common ancestor to both Neandertals and H Sapiens - at various sites a number of hominin fossils have been found - most consists of parts of one or very few individuals, the one exception of large number of bones and teeth from Sierra de Atapuerca in Northern Spain where heidelgergensis were found o 32 individuals of both sexes, juveniles as well as adults were deliberately dumped into a deep cave known as Sima de los Huesoss (Pit of bones) Levalloisian Technique - Levalloisan technique: tool making technique by which three or four long triangular flakes were detached from a specially prepared core. - Another breakthrough was hafting o Affixing of small stone bifaces and flakes in handles of wood - to make and improve spears and knives - These new composite tools involved three components o Assembly of a handle or shaft o Stone insert o Binding materials - Another development in Africa, was the increasing use of yellow and red pigments of iron oxide o Signal rise in ritual activity like presaged burial of the dead Neandetals - First appearance is early as 800,000 years ago - Neandertals are more closely related to one another than to modern humans o Analyzed mitochondria DNA o Studies using mitochondria DNA indicate maternal DNA from Neandertals is virtually absent in modern humans - Neandertals and modern humans began to diver around 500,000 years ago www.notesolution.com
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