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Chapter 4

Lecture 3- Chapter 4 & 5.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sherry Fukuzawa

thMay 14 2013Lecture 3ANT101 Microevolution Human DiversityHistory of the study of human variation Macro creation of new species through reproduction isolation Micro idea of small genetic changes or allele frequencies that occur within a pop Gene pool within a pop diff allele frequencies within a pop Ex blood typeThese are both importantDifferences WITHIN a species micro evolutionstTwo diff school of thought 1 Linneaus binomial nomenclature He didnt include modern humans but in 1735 he came up with nomenclature but 20 years later he looked at homosapiens and divided them up according to geography stated belowLinneaus 1758 classificatorySeparated humans into 5 categoriesAmericanus red red lines ill tempredEuropaeus white serious blue eyes smart strong active wears tight clothingAsiaticus yellow greedy black hair hotty ruled by opinionAfer black silky skinMonstrosus deformed or imaginary peopleWhen it came to dividing our own species he did cultural biases this highlights problems with examination of our own speciesCount de Buffon he also incorporated cultural biases in what he studied He is different from Linneaus because he didnt divide the ppl into different classification he didnt adhere to diff types of categories He kept it more descriptive emphasized the unity More similarities than differences in the species he studied Varieties of the Human Species 1749descriptiveRejected classificationsEmphasized unity of speciesBehavioralcultural biasesProblems in classifying humansHumans are both the investigatorssubjectsInequalitiesinjusticesEugenics apply the principle of NS and Mendelian genetics to human types this is wrong because it has some bias in itGoal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for favorable traitsImportant figures in Eugenics Francis Galton what he did was he used mendelian genetic principle for proof of this idea and used statistics 1869 Heredity GeniusProminence is inborn prominent individuals give birth to prominent offspringsStatisticsUsed biology to reinforce social prejudicesCharles Davenport he established the eugenic movement we can encourage reproduction between certain individuals to improve the society1911 Heredity in relation to eugenicsEstablished eugenics in US scientific programHow was eugenics to be carried outRestriction of immigrationRestriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traitsEncouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traitsEugenics took hold in National Socialist Germany hitler took this to a next levelErnest Hooton father of anthropologyBroke from eugenics movement US dropped the eugenic movements
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