Whitehead Chapter 1: Definition of the Primates (p. 1-18)

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Sherry Fukuzawa

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NotesFromReadingWHITEHEADCHAPTER1DEFINITIONOFTHEPRIMATESPGS118Introduction Humans are members of the Order Primates one of the number of orders that have evolved since the origin of the mammals in the Triassic Linnaeus in Systema Naturae 1735 included humans in the Anthropomorpha later called Primates with lemurs monkeys and apes although he did not have a paradigm of evolutionPrimates are animals chordates vertebrates and mammalsAnimals share certain defining characteristicsoCan be defined as multicellular heterotrophic diploid organisms that develop from the union of two different haploid gametes and egg termed second oocyte in mammals and a smaller sperm The cleavage visions that follower fertilization produce a blastula a allow ball of cellsoNot only multicellulartheir cells are joined by intercellular junctions to form tissuesoWithin the Animalia primates belong to those subdivisions which have tissues organized into organs and organ systems are bilaterally symmetrical and have a true body cavity coelem which is lined on all sides by the mesodermal lining termed peritoneum oWithin the coelomates eucoelomates primates are animals in which the embryonic blastopore develops into the anus and so they are deuterostomesoWithin the deuterostomes primates and other mammals belong to the Chordata Chordates are defined by presence of four important characteristics at some stage of developmentoThe presence of a notochord gill slits in the throat pharyngeal gill slits a single dorsal hallow nerve chord which becomes the brain and spinal chord in humans and many other chordates and a postanal tailoOther features bilateral symmetry segmented body organization including the presence of myomeres complete digestive tract with a mouth and anus sexual reproduction separate sexes and the presence of a ventral heart and closed circulatory system The Subphylum Vertebrata are those chordates in which vertebrae surround the spinal cordoThe notochord is replaced by the bodies of the vertebraeoThe cephalic portion of the dorsal hallow nerve chord develops into the brain which is enclosed in a protective skull craniumoVertebrates are further divided into the Agnatha lampreys and hagfishes and the Gnathostomata primatesjaws are present the notochord usually does not persist into adulthood and appendages are generally paired oGnathostome vertebrates are divided into a number of classes most of which are fishesoTetrapods consist of the amphibians reptiles birds and mamalsThe mammals are comprise of the Prototheria represented only by the platypus and echidna and the TheriaoContains two living infraclasses Metatheria pouched mammals or marsupials and Eutheria placental mammalsMammalsThere are five major features that unite the mammalsoHair Although the relative amount differs significantly among taxaoMammary Glands In female mammals which produce milk for the nourishment of the young after birth oIncus Malleus and Stapes The middle ear of mammals possesses three tiny bones ossicles Reptiles generally have the stapes but never have all three bones
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