Whitehead Chapter 5 - BODY ORGANIZATION (PGS. 155-204)

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Sherry Fukuzawa

NotesFromReadingWHITEHEADCHAPTER5BODYORGANIZATIONPGS155204IntroductionThe skeleton is divided into two major sections the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton oThe axial skeleton includes the skull and the bones of the thorax and vertebral column oThe appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the pectoral shoulder and pelvic hip girdles and the upper and lower extremities Another way to divide the skeleton is into the cranial and postcranial bones An infant has more bones than the adult because some bones fuse during development Most primates have remained fairly generalized in their postcranial skeleton with the retention of a clavicle an unfused proximal section of the fibula tarsiers or fibula unfused to the tibia along its entire length pentadactyl hands and feet and seven cervical vertebraeTerms Used in Describing Landmarks on Postcranial BonesTermDescriptionExampleCondyleA somewhat rounded projection for Femoral condylesarticulation with another bonesCrestA ridge of bone to which mucles are attachedLliac crestFacetA small smooth generally flat or slightly Costal facets convex or concave surfaceForamenA hole in a boneObturator foramen FossaA larger excavated shallow or hollow place in Olecranon fossaa boneFoveaA pitFovea on the head of the radiusGroove or sulcusLinear depressionObturator grooveHeadA rounded end which helps to form a joint and Head of the femurprojects beyond a narrow neckLineA less prominent ridgeIntertrochanteric line of femurNeckA constricted area at the base of a headAnatomical neck of the femurSpine and spinous A relatively sharp projection for muscle Spinous process of vertebraprocessattachmentTrochanterA large process to which muscle are attachedGreater and lesser trochanters of the femurTubercleA small rounded projection for muscle Adductor tubercle of the femurattachmentTuberosityA large roughened projection to which muscle Greater tuberosity of humerusattachFeatures of the Postcranial Bones of the Axial SkeletonBonesFeaturesAtlas C1Anterior arch posterior arch latera mass superior articular facet inferior articular facet transverse foramen transverse process vertebral foramenAxis C2Body centrum dens inferior articular facet superior articular facet lateral mass transverse process transverse foramen vertebral foramen spinous process lamina pedicleCervical vertebrae Spinous process body centrum superior articular facet inferior articular facet C3C7lamina pedicle transverse foramen transverse process vertebral foramenThoracic vertebraeBody centrum facets for tubercles f ribs lamina pedicle spinous process superior articular facet inferior articular facet transverse process vertebral foramenLumbar vertebrae Body centrum lamina pedicle spinous process superior articular facet inferior articular facet transverse process vertebral foramenSacrumAnterior pelvic sacral foramina auricular surface lateral sacral crest median
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