BIO152H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1, 2, 4, 5: Glycosidic Bond, Dehydration Reaction, Phosphate
Chapter1, 2, 4, 5
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BIO152 Textbook Notes
Evolution: the process of change that results in organisms adapting to the environment.
Biology: the study of life.
Emergent Properties: properties that are not present unless specific circumstances occur
or the “parts” are arrangement in a specific way. Ex: photosynthesis will not take place
unless there is a specific arrangement of molecules inside the chloroplast, the mind will
not function if there is damage.
Reductionism: the approach of reducing complex systems to simpler components for the
purpose of study.
Systems Biology: an approach that attempts to model the dynamic behaviour of
biological systems based on the interactions between their components (think of the
Structuralism theory for consciousness in Psychology)
Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic: the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell
by a membrane, and no nucleus is present.
Eukaryotic: the cell is subdivided by internal membranes into organelles, including a
nucleus that contains the cell’s DNA.
Chromosomes contain all genetic material in the form of DNA. DNA is the substance of
genes, which are units of heritable information. DNA contains information to make
proteins, which are the main players in building and maintaining the cell. Enzymes are
proteins that catalyze (speed up) bodily processes and chemical reactions.
The entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome.
Negative Feedback: an accumulation of an end product in a process slowing that process.
(Ex. When too much ATP is made, the excess inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of
Positive Feedback: an end product speeds up its own production. (Ex. The clotting of
your own blood in response to injury.)
Darwinism: Contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors that differed
from them – “descent with modification”. Also, the concept of “natural selection” – a
population begins with varied traits, those with undesirable traits and low survivability
die, leaving the survivors to reproduce and pass on their desirable traits.
Natural selection is a form of evolutionary adaptation because the natural environment
selects for the propagation of certain traits. It is possible through this that one species can
radiate into multiple species as they continue to adapt to the environment.
Inductive Reasoning: using a large number of specific observations to formulate a
Deductive Reasoning: using a generalization to form specific conclusions.
Viability is the capability of an organism to live or grow and develop.
Viability selection is the selection of individual organisms who can survive until they are
able to reproduce.
Survivorship is the number or proportion of individuals surviving.
Survival rates are a measurement of the number of individuals surviving per unit of time.
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Properties of Water: Universal solvent, can perform cohesion (water molecules bonding
to each other via hydrogen bonds) and adhesion (ability to stick to neutral surfaces), can
moderate temperature, and ice is less dense than water, so when water freezes in a lake,
the ice covers only the surface of the lake and organisms are able to survive underneath it.
Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass. Element: substance that cannot be
broken down into other substances; is in it’s purest form. Compound: substance
containing two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Essential elements: elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce.
Trace elements are required by an organism in only small quantities.
Some species can adapt to environments containing elements that are usually toxic.
Atom: smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
Isotopes: an element that has more neutrons than the other similar elements, leading it to
have a greater mass and sometimes exhibit radioactive properties (a radioactive isotope
when the nucleus decays spontaneously and turns into a different element).
Half-life: the time it takes for half of a substance to decay.
Radiometric dating: when scientists measure the ratio of different isotopes and calculate
how many half-lives have passed since an organism was fossilized.
Energy: the capacity to cause change. Potential energy: the energy that matter possesses
because of its location or structure. Electrons in the first shell have the lowest potential
energy due to it being so close to the nucleus, whereas the electrons in the farther shells
have more potential energy due to them being so far away. (It takes work to move a given
electron farther away from the nucleus, so the more distant an election is from the
nucleus, the greater its potential energy.
When an electron loses energy, it “falls back” to a shell closer to the nucleus, and the lost
energy is transferred into heat.
The chemical behaviour of an atom is determined by the distribution of electrons in the
atom’s electron shells.
Orbital: a volume of space where there is a high probability an electron will be found.
(Strong) Covalent bonds consist of elements sharing a pair of valence electrons to form a
Electronegativity: the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
Nonpolar covalent bond: a covalent bond between two atoms of the same element.
Polar covalent bond: when one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom.
(Strong) Ionic Bonds: the attraction between a cation (a positively charged ion) and an
anion (a negatively charged ion).
(Weak) Hydrogen bonds – the partial positive charge of a hydrogen atom attracted to a
partial negative charge on another atom, Van der Waals interactions – the ever-changing
regions of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick.
Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules are all made of carbon.
Study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry.
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Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due
to the presence of an asymmetric carbon.
Page 71: Chart of Organic Groups
ATP: the source of energy for all cellular processes: adenosine triphosphate. Adenosine
attached to three phosphate groups, a reaction with water can form inorganic phosphate
Living matter is made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen.
Organic compounds were once thought to arise only within living organisms, called
vitalism. However, this was disproved when scientists were able to synthesize organic
compounds in a lab.
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and
properties. There are structural isomers, cis-trans isomers, and enantiomers.
Macromolecules, large molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Polymer: a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked
by covalent bonds.
Monomer: the building blocks of a polymer.
Enzymes: specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reaction.
Loss of a water molecule in a reaction: dehydration.
Using a water molecule to break another molecule: hydrolysis.
20 Kinds of amino acids.
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, monomer sugars such as glucose or galactose.
Disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides joined by a Glycosidic bond, a covalent
bond formed between two sugars by a dehydration reaction.
Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few thousand monosaccharides.
Lipids: compounds that mix poorly with water: they are hydrophobic. Fats,
phospholipids, and steroids.
Fats are made up of glycerol and a fatty acid chain.
Saturated: the ends of the fat molecules lack double bonds, and their flexibility allow for
fat molecules to pack together tightly.
Unsaturated: the fat molecules have cis-double bonds on the end, preventing the
molecules from packing together as closely.
Phospholipids: made up of hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head, the major
constituents of cell membranes.
Cholesterol: molecule that creates gaps in the cell membrane for large molecules to pass
Catalysts: chemical agents that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by
Proteins are made up of polypeptides, amino acids formed together via peptide bonds.
Proteins have different types: Enzymatic (selective acceleration of chemical reactions),
defensive (protection against disease), storage (storage of amino acids), transport
(transport of substances), hormonal (coordination of an organism’s activities), receptor
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