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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO207H5
Professor
Nicole Myers

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iGenetics – Textbook Notes
Chapter 1
-Genetics – the study of heredity
- Concerned primarily with the understanding that biological properties are transmitted
from parent to offspring
- Genetics includes heredity, molecular nature of the genetic material, the ways in which
genes control life functions, and the disruption and behaviour of genes in populations
Classical and Modern Genetics
- 1856-1863 - Gregor Mendel analyzed quantitatively the results of crossing pea plants
that varied in easily observable characteristics. After his death researchers realized that
Mendel had discovered fundamental principles of heredity (the foundation of modern
genetics)
- 1972 – Paul Berg – constructed the first recombinant DNA molecule in vitro (work with
mutant genes so that they compare the differences with normal genes)
- 1973 – Herb Boyer, Stanley Cohen – first used a plasmid to clone DNA
- 1986 – Kary Mullis – developed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a technique for
amplification of selected DNA segments without cloning
Geneticists and Genetic Research
-Hypothetic-deductive method of investigation – consists of making observations,
forming hypotheses to explain the observation, making experimental predictions based
on hypotheses ad finally testing the predictions (for refinement purposes).
Subdisciplines of Genetics
1) Transmission genetics (aka classical genetics) – how genes and genetic traits are
transmitted from generation to generation and how genes recombine (exchange
between chromosomes). Analyzing the pattern of trait transmission in a human pedigree
or in crosses of experimental organisms is an example of transmission genetics study
2) Molecular genetics – deals with molecular structure and function of genes. Analyzing
the molecular events involved in the gene control of cell division, or the regulation of
expression of all the genes in the genome, are examples of molecular genetic studies.
Genetic analysis is a part of molecular genetics.
- Useful when studying neurobiology, cell biology, developmental biology, animal and plant
physiology, immunology and the structure and function of genomes.

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Description
iGeneticsTextbook NotesChapter 1Geneticsthe study of heredityConcerned primarily with the understanding that biological properties are transmitted from parent to offspringGenetics includes heredity molecular nature of the genetic material the ways in which genes control life functions and the disruption and behaviour of genes in populationsClassical and Modern Genetics 18561863Gregor Mendel analyzed quantitatively the results of crossing pea plants that varied in easily observable characteristics After his death researchers realized that Mendel had discovered fundamental principles of heredity the foundation of modern genetics1972Paul Bergconstructed the first recombinant DNA molecule in vitro work with mutant genes so that they compare the differences with normal genes1973Herb Boyer Stanley Cohenfirst used a plasmid to clone DNA 1986Kary Mullisdeveloped the polymerase chain reaction PCR a technique for amplification of selected DNA segments without cloningGeneticists and Genetic ResearchHypotheticdeductive method of investigationconsists of making observations forming hypotheses to explain the observation making experimental predictions based on hypotheses ad finally testing the predictions for refinement purposes Subdisciplines of Genetics1Transmission genetics aka classical geneticshow genes and genetic traits are transmitted from generation to generation and how genes recombine exchange between chromosomesAnalyzing the pattern of trait transmission in a human pedigree or in crosses of experimental organisms is an example of transmission genetics study2Molecular geneticsdeals with molecular structure and function of genes Analyzing the molecular events involved in the gene control of cell division or the regulation of expression of all the genes in the genome are examples of molecular genetic studies Genetic analysis is a part of molecular genetics Useful when studying neurobiology cell biology developmental biology animal and plant physiology immunology and the structure and function of genomes
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