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Canada (161,897)
Biology (653)
BIO342H5 (21)
Chapter 10


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Don Mc Kenzie

Chapter 10 Studying Adaptation Evolutionary Analysis of Form and FunctionExplanation of organismal design is among the triumphs of the theory of evolution by natural selectionIndividuals in previous generations varied in their design and the ones with the best designs passed on their genes in greater numbersA trait or integrated suite of traits that increases the fitness of its possessor is called an adaptation and is said to be adaptiveIn order to prove that a trait is an adaptation we need first to determine what a trait is for and then show that individuals possessing the trait contribute more genes to future generations than individuals lacking it 101All Hypotheses Must Be Tested Oxpeckers Reconsidered Read Example on Oxpeckers Pg 364366 Oxpeckers are vampires and eaters of earwaxEven when they do eat ticks Oxpeckers prefer adult females that have already engorged themselves with blood that is ticks that have already done their damage to the host When studying adaptations there are some key things to keep in mindoDifferences among populations or species are not always adaptive There are two species of oxpecker one has red bills the other yellow It is possible that each color is adaptive for the species that wears it But it is also possible that the difference is not adaptive at all Mutations causing different colors may have become fixed in the two oxpeckers by genetic drift At the molecular level much of the variation among individuals populations and species may be selectively neutral oNot every trait of an organism or every use of a trait by an organism is an adaptation While feeding on large mammals oxpeckers may sometimes meet a potential mate This does not necessarily mean that feeding on
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