CHM120H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3-8: Psychoactive Drug, Asthma, Conversion Disorder

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8 Aug 2016
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Explain three positive factors that support having diagnostic categories or giving patients a diagnosis.
1) it facilitates communication among practitioners and researchers (standardization)
2) it is the key to further knowledge in terms of treatment and prevention
3) it allows for psychoeducation leading to more personal knowledge for sufferers of mental disorders as well
as reducing feelings of isolation and uncontrollability
1. What is a panic attack? When is it adaptive and when is it maladaptive? [4 marks]
- A panic attack is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which at least 4 panic symptoms (heart
racing, sweating, shaking, choking, nausea, dizziness, etc…) develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10
minutes. Panic reactions are adaptive when there is some present danger in the environment that you must
confront, however they are maladaptive when they occur in absence of some threatening stimuli, i.e., they
occur out of the blue, or are unexpected or uncued.
Give examples of some common phobias and provide an explanation for why they are so much more
prevalent than other phobias. [3 marks]
- common phobias include fear of snakes, spiders, dogs, heights, water, blood
These phobias are likely more common due to Biological Preparedness or a genetic predisposition to fear
certain stimuli over others. Most of the common phobias involve things that were traditionally very deadly to
our ancestors and thus it was evolutionarily adaptive to have a strong fear response for these ancient dangers.
2. What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders? [2 marks]
- Bipolar I is one or more Manic or Mixed episodes, usually accompanied by Depressive episodes, whereas,
Bipolar II is Depressive episodes accompanied by hypomania
3. What is Somatization Disorder? [2 marks]
- a history of many physical complaints that result in treatment being sought that cannot be explained by a
medical condition and are not intentionally produced
4. What are the two types of Eating Disorders recognized by the DSM-IV? [2 marks]
- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
5. What are the four classification categories of Schizophrenia? [2 marks]
- Paranoid, Catatonic, Disorganized, and Undifferentiated
6. List three types of Insight-Oriented therapy. [3 marks]
- Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Gestalt, Emotion Focused, or Process Experiential [any three]
7. What are the three main categories of psychopharmacological drugs? [3 marks]
- Anti-Depressant, Anti-Anxiety, and Anti-Psychotic
8. List six advantages of group therapy. [3 marks] [any six for 1/2 mark each]
1) Efficiency 2) Universality 3) Empathy 4) Interaction
5) Acceptance 6) Altruism 7) Modeling 8) Pressure
9) Practice 10) Reality Testing 11) Transference
Describe three warning signs that signal a risk for suicide. [3 marks] [any three, one mark each]
1) withdrawal from family and friends (social isolation)
2) changes in eating and sleeping patterns
3) writing or talking a lot about death
4) telling statements like “the world would be better off without me”, or “I would be better off dead”,
or “no one would miss me if I were dead”
5) periods of agitation followed by calm resignation
6) giving away valued possessions
7) taking care of unfinished business like debts and favours owed
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List the areas covered by each of the 5 axes of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition
(DSM-IV) [5 marks]
Axis I all mental disorders (except)
Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III physical/medical disorders
Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (1-100)
1. How does Panic Disorder contribute to the development of Agoraphobia? [3 marks]
- recurrent panic attacks cause distress associated with high risk places like malls, restaurants, theatres, and
other public places. As the fear of having a panic attack increases a person may become more and more
anxious about going out to public places ‘till eventually the person does not want to go out at all for fear of
having a panic attack in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing.
2. What is Social Phobia and what fear is thought to be at the root of the disorder? [3 marks]
- social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations, particularly situations that
involve exposure to unfamiliar people or to possible evaluation by others.
- the underlying fear is thought to be a fear that one will do something stupid or humiliating and that others will
negatively evaluate the person leading to rejection, loneliness and unhappiness.
3. What are the four types of Mood Episodes found in Mood Disorders? [2 marks]
- Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Hypomanic Episode, Mixed Episode
4. What is Hypochondriasis? [2 marks]
-a preoccupation with the belief that one has a serious disease despite medical evaluation and
assurance to the contrary, and the person is not delusional
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – IV, what are the two types of Anorexia Nervosa?
- Restricting Type and Binge-Purging Type
Regarding the mental disorder Schizophrenia, what type of symptoms are delusions and
hallucinations?
- positive symptoms
List three techniques in Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy that are necessary for a good therapeutic
climate. [3 marks]
- Genuineness, Unconditional Positive Regard, and Empathy
List three types of anti-depressant medication. [3 marks]
-Tricyclic anti-depressants
-Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
-Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors
Describe three factors that are common to all types of psychotherapy. [3 marks] [any three, one mark
each]
-development of a strong therapeutic alliance or relationship between therapist and patient/client
-providing a rationale for why the client is suffering and why these techniques help alleviate suffering
-provide an opportunity for catharsis or venting or expressing emotions in a safe environment
-acquisition and practice of new behaviors and ways to respond to the world
-beneficial therapist qualities (objective, confident, professional)
-positive expectations and hope
5. List three predisposing conditions (diatheses) that can be risk factors for suicide. [3 marks]
[any three, one mark each]
-having a psychological disorder -substance abuse
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