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University of Toronto Mississauga
Forensic Science

FSC239 January 6 th Ch. 17 – pgs 327 to 342 Microanalysis and Examination of Trace Evidence - microanalysis: the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques to the observation, collection and analysis of microscopic evidence that cannot be clearly observed or analyzed without such devices - trace analysis: qualitative or quantitative analysis of the minor or ultraminor components of a sample - sample: an entire submitted exhibit or subsample of the exhibit Instruments of Microanalysis and Sample Types - the microscope most likely to be employed first in the examination of evidence is the stereo binocular microscope o location and recovery of microscopic particles and materials from their substrates o magnification: objective lens * eyepiece o lens: an optical component that may be composed of one or multiple elements - the second most common type of microscope is the compound binocular microscope o physical dimensions by actual measurement are more useful – stage micrometer – micrometry: allowing evaluation of characteristics such as length, width, and thickness - light is a wave phenomenon o its characteristics are velocity, wavelength, and frequency, related to colour, amplitude, brightness, and vibration direction, which is always perpendicular to direction of travel o privileged direction: plane polarized light is obtained by the use of polymer films in which the molecules are very highly oriented and have been treated with a dye so that they almost totally absorb light vibrating in all but one direction o crossed polars: when two polarizers are placed in such a way that light passes through one and then the second and privileged directions of each are perpendicular, no light will emerge from the second o Raman spectra are generated when light from a source is scattered by the electron cloud of a molecule  are complimentary to infrared spectra and supply more information concerning the backbone of the structure of the molecule whereas infrared excels at functional group identification  the principle advantages that make Raman spectroscopy attractive are: • 1. it is essentially a non-destructive technique • 2. it requires very little, if any, sample preparation • 3. laser point only illuminates the sample of interest • 4. it is able to meas
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