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Chapter 15

GGR361H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Contrived, Sexual Orientation

Course Code
Alan Walks

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Chapter 15: The texture of Participation in Community Planning
Planning theory: Linking the Public, Politicians and Planners:
- Politicians, the public (citizens), professional planners, professionals in public agencies and
developers are the primary participants
- Key interrelationship between the citizens of the community, the members of the local
governing body and the professional planners is explored
- The effectiveness with which this triad- public, politician, planner- works together largely
determining the success of the planning process in the community.
- 2 Lessons learned from 1960s planning: 1). Community planning is a political activity that makes
choices among values held by community members. 2). Participation in planning decisions is not
just a one-way process of communication. There needs to be dialogue among politicians, public
and planner.
Linking Politicians and Planners:
- Each are dependent upon the other- indeed, interdependent- since both seek the similar end of
coordinating diverse interests in the community and achieving a good quality of environment
- Tension exists, and politicians and planners find themselves in conflict over who should give
leadership i plaig. Thus the jo of represetig eoes oe of reoilig and
integrating the many competing demands that citizens, groups, firms and other officials place on
the local councillor.
- The Politiia’s job is to provide leadership and resolve conflicts. A related dilemma for the
politicans revolves around sharing his or her power to make decisions with others.
Roles (4) of the Planner:
- The planner as a leader (or representative) of the planning agency: The planer must be
oered ith the orgaizatioal ase fro hih they operate. This ioles the agey’s
status and relationships with the local governing body, community groups, other governmental
organizations and developers as well as with it own staffing and morale.
- The planning agency must be accepted as an essential part of ouity’s goeretal
machinery of the goals o planning want to be achieved.
- The effectiveness of the planner is closely linked with the creditability f the planning agency and
whether and to what degree is it either welcomed or excluded in promoting planning solutions
with politicians, developers, other agencies or the public.
- As a technical advisor: Planner brings to the community planning job the values and standards
of the planning profession by education and experience.
- Planner uses accepted technical skills in research and design.
- As a political Innovator: Getting planning proposals accepted means changing the political
climate in the community toward new ideas. The planner, therefore, is frequently called upon
to promote proposals in such a way as to bring about political innovation
- These may include chambers of commerce, real estate interests, environmental organizations,
property owners and tenant associations.
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- Planners will usually try to identify all stakeholders with specific interests in a proposal and then
predict their reaction to it. The planner will then have to consider what steps need to be taken
to improve the chances of these proposals to be accepted.
- Primarily serving the publics interests.
- Citizen Educator: The planner seeks to affect the basic attitudes and values of the community at
large regarding the benefits and consequences of planning. Th extent to which planning is
undertaken will depend upon the degree of tolerance for new ideas in the community, but this
will vary depending upon citizens previous experience with planning and development, their
cultural milieu and their perception of resources that might be needed.
Degrees of participation: 8 rungs on the ladder in 3 broad categories
- Contrived Participation:
- 1.) Manipulation (using education to persuade)
- . Therapy egagig itizes i dierse atiities that ill ure the of their oers oer
basic flaws and injustices)
- Token Participation:
- . Iforig Iforatio ad ho resposes for)
- 4.) Consultation (occurs when explicit means are used to obtain the views of citizens, such as
throughout attitude survey and public meetings. Citizens are heard but are they understood?)
- 5. Plaatio refers to the fors of partiipatio alloig itizes to e heard
- Citizen Power Sharing:
- 6.) Partnership (Involves an agreement to share responsibilities for planning through joint policy
boards or committees)
- 7). Delegated Power (Gives citizens dominant decision-making responsibility over a plan or
program, usually from the outset)
- 8). Citizens controls (Is a level which citizens govern a program or project in all its policy and
managerial aspects. Citizens are found in cooperative and other citizen non-profit housing
Broadening Participation:
- Women
- Youth
- Elderly
- Persons with disabilities
- Ethnic populations
- Sexual orientation(LGBTQ)
Planning and Consensus Building:
- Falls uder the ruri ouiatie plaig proess. They ai to reah utually eefiial
agreements among participants about planning issues. Most of these methods have 2 essential
features; 1. Process (deliberation and discussion) 2. Array of participants (stakeholders)
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