Chapter28.docx

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19 Apr 2012
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Ch. 28: World War II (1939-45)
-Hitler grew impatient and went on to annex Austria through rigged votes; Czechoslovakia and
Poland were next; resistance against German forces was spreading in Europe; Allied victory
through Soviet's patriotism and US' aid; racism and anti-Semitism persisted (Nazi racial
policies)
Aggression and Conquest
-Hitler wanted to expand eastward towards Russia; the French, British, and Americans
underestimated the Nazi party and what they were capable of
-the Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan vs. the Grand Alliance: Britain, Soviet Union, US
-Japan’s economy depended on Manchuria and China; both wanted to cut off ties with Japan;
Japan retaliated and attacked to conquer; the Grand Alliance was interested in China too and
wanted to protect it for idealogical, economic and security purposes; Asia vs. Europe
-Hitler wanted to avoid fighting Britain at all costs; he only wanted to fight Russia; his so-called
reason was to abolish communism; it was for living space; demanded that Germans in Czech be
freed, but real goal was to cripple the Czech state because it was an obstacle to their move east;
Britain convinced France and Czech (who were allies) to hand Sudentenland over to Germany;
felt it was the only solution and way to appease Germany for the damage of WWI; Britain had a
secret agenda too (self-serving): it did not want to start another war like 1914-1918
-September 29, 1938: meeting at Munich to avert war between France, Britain, Germany, Italy,
and Czech; yielding to Hitler’s demands destabilized Europe in the long run and put Germany at
the top
-Pact of Steel (1939): German military alliance with Italy; Non-Aggression Pact (1939): German
alliance with Soviet Union (with Germany and Russia as allies, Hitler believed that Britain and
France would remain neutral and Germany could conquer Poland); Stalin did not trust Hitler
despite their agreement
-WW2 had begun; France still made errors in strategy; thought Germany would attack like they
did in WWI, so France made the Maginot Line; Germany went for a direct attack with tanks;
France’s morale from the WWI = their downfall; Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain asked for
armistice
-The Battle of Britain (1940): Britain now alone in war; Italy finally entered the war to aid
Germany invade the British Isles; Winston Churchill = prime minister after Chamberlain;
Germany attacked British aircraft, airfields, and munitions centers first then major population
centers; Britain fought back with their Royal Air Force (air superiority); Hitler canceled the
invasion
-German troops successfully invaded the Brits in the Balkans; the Balkans were important to
Hitler; half of Germany’s wheat and livestock came from there (Yugoslavia supplied metal ores;
Romania and Hungary provided oil); geopolitical importance; in order to attack the Soviet,
Germany must prepare and control the straits linking the Mediterranean and Black Seas
(British empire’s weakness)
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