„The New Science of Democracy: Madison and Lenin‟ by Hardt and Negri is
primarily about the multitude. Firstly the multitude is an important factor of Beasley-
Murray‟s Posthegemony theory and was used to argue against hegemony theory.
Hardt and Negri discuss three main aspects of multitude. An ontological perspective,
sociological perspective, and the one they spend the most time discussing is the
political perspective. Throughout the reading they relate the multitude as a form of
From an ontological perspective the multitude is a production of the social life
and generated by continuous encounters and communications with bodies (So could I
say it‟s the multitude is generated by continuous „affects‟ with other people. From
Lecture March 12).
From a sociological perspective the power of the multitude (called constituent
power?) is built by „cooperative and communicative‟ networks. Hardt and Negri term this
Hardt and Negri find that the purpose of the multitude is essentially political. They
see the multitude as