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HIS330H5 (14)
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Chapter 6 Independence Leaders as LiberalsThe Spanish American movements began as civil wars between coloniesmother country where the civil wars produced revolutionary changes for Indians castes slaveswhites Some social gains for those of colors immediately males slaves were emancipated by both sides on the condition that they were in the armies for lengthy periods but some survived to become free men where they had opportunities during the independence wars that didnt exist in the colonial regime A few colored became generals and one admiral officers etcindependenceincreased the upward socioeconomic mobility to access educational and bureaucratic opportunities for people of African descent were greater than those in CubaPuerto Rico which remained Spanish colonies social change for ppl of color were slow with exception of Francias long Paraguayan dictatorshipFew leaders of the independence movement advocated radical social change even though the early constitutions used manhood suffrage the founding fathers of Spanish American nation adopted a republicanism that had entire free male population into the active citizenry ruining the premise of colonial government ruled by a small elite of aristocrats and other ppl of wealthAdult men were permitte to vote and participate but gaps between theoryreality The national constiutions incorporated restrictions that could disqualify males being unemployed not independent source of income denied to agricultural workers domestic employees and people in debt to the public treasury Literacy was required thus eliminating almost all male population from active citizenship Mexico 18201835 had a lot of men votingStill steps forward no free men were excluded from citizenship regardless of race Chilean constitution 1822 Bolivan constitution 1826 made men have to be literacy for citizenship but this took ten years to implement allowing those to learn Until universal manhood suffrage was reality ppl of wealthesteem would govern for common good bien comun justification elite rule on traditional Spanish politics asserted right during crisis 1765 Rebellion of the Barrios in the Quito At the same time established the requirement of high property and income for office holders in the new republic created the necessity for the elites to govern in the name of the peopleMany pass free womb laws lifted slavery of children born into it though common for them to serve long apprenticeships a de facto bondage some ended slavery Chile 1823 Central America Mexico 1830s Argentina Bolivia Peru Colombia Venezuela Ecuador 1850s Paraguay 1869Independent movements led by the ciudadania active active citizenry oligarchy and ppl on way up from middlelower ranges of society Active citizenry wrote the constitutionshaped the new politics thLeaders of Spanish American Independence Liberals 19 centuryinfluenced by Locke Mantesquieu influenced by Ultilitarianism generations of students as the political philopshy that judged the value of legislation by the degree to which it brought the greatest good to the greatest number of people Individualism individuals should be as unrestricted in their activities
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