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Human Resource Management Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dave Swanston

Human Resource Management Definition: The process of determining human resource needs and the recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating, compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals.  Involved in, planning, record keeping and other administrative duties.  Qualified employees are harder to find today, which makes recruiting more difficult Major human resource management responsibilities:  Attracting a quality workforce- planning, recruitment, and selection.  Developing a quality workforce- Employee orientation, training and development, and performance appraisal.  Maintaining a quality workforce- Career development, work-life balance, compensation and benefits, employee retention and turnover, and labour-management relations. Major steps a company should take: (according to Wismer) 1. Understand external environment 2. Understand internal environment 3. Select the most critical human resource topics and set priorities 4. Initiate projects with dedicated teams 5. Secure support from top management Human Resource Strategy/Planning 1. Preparing a human resources inventory of the organization’s employees a. Ages, names, education, capabilities, training, skills… 2. Preparing a job analysis a. Job analysis: a study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles. i. Job description: a summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work to be done, the responsibilities and duties, the working conditions, and the relationship of the job to other functions. ii. Job specifications: a written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job. 3. Assessing the future human resources demand a. Due to technological advances, HR managers must ensure that trained people are available when needed. 4. Assessing future human resources supply a. Labour force is constantly shifting (e.g. less computer and robotic repair workers and more assembly line workers in the future) 5. Establishing a strategic plan a. Plan addresses recruitment, selection, training and development, evaluation, compensation, scheduling and career management for the labour force. Recruiting Employees Recruitment: set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right people at the right time. Difficulties of recruitment:  Some organizations have policies (promotions, union contracts, and low wages). This can make it difficult to keep employees.  Legal guidelines: must provide equal employment opportunities.  Important to hire people who are skilled and can fit in with the culture and leadership style of the organization.  Sometimes people with the necessary skills are unavailable (therefore workers must be hired and then trained internally) Employee Sources 1. Human resource department a. External sources- internet, job fairs, private employment agencies b. Internal sources- transfers, promotions, retrained employees 2. Selection 3. Hiring 4. Orientation and training Selection: process of gathering information and deciding who should be hired, under legal guidelines, for the best interests of the individuals and the organization Selection Process: 1. Application form 2. Initial and follow-up interviews 3. Employment tests 4. Confirming background information (criminal, driving, credit histories, educational crdentials…) 5. Establishing trial (probationary) periods- easy to fire while on probation if not meeting expectations Contingent Workers: workers who do not have regular, full-time employment.  E.g. seasonal, part-time (30 hours or less), temporary, co-op, interns, independent contractors  Hired when there is a peak demand for labour  Receive few benefits  May be offered a permanent position (motivation to work hard) Training and development programs Definition: all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee’s ability to perform (e.g. training program in the simulation). Training focuses on short-term skills, development focuses on long-term abilities.  Orientation  On-the-job training- employee immediately begins tasks and learns by doing (Tim Horton).  Apprentice programs- learner works alongside an experienced employee to master skills.  Off-the-job training- training away from workplace and consists of internal/external programs.  Online training- “attend” classes via internet.  Vestibule training- training done in schools on equipment similar to ones in workplace.  Job simulation- equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so that trainees can learn before attempting them on the job. Methods used to develop managerial skills Management development: the process of training and educating employees to become good managers and then monitoring the progress of their managerial skills over time. Management training program: 1. On-the-job coaching- senior manager will assist lower level manager. 2. Understudy positions- work as assistant until ready to take on position themselves. 3. Job rotation- managers giving assignments in different departments. 4. Off-the-job courses and training- managers go to schools or seminars to develop technical/human relation skills. Empowerment: giving employees the authority and responsibility to respond quickly to customer request Enabling: giving workers the education and tolls they need to make decisions Networking Definition: process of establishing and maintaining connections with key managers in an organization which serve as informal development systems. Mentor: an experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower-level employees by introducing them to the right people and being their organizational sponsor.  Wismer suggest to talk to people who are doing what you would like to do. Seek them out and learn from them. Diversity in management  Grooming women and minorities for management
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