Pol343 nov 22 reading kaye 22.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL343Y5
Professor
Justin Bumgardner
Semester
Winter

Description
Pol343 nov 22ThemovementstartedsoonafterWorldWarIIwiththecreationoftheinternationalmilitarytribunalsatNurembergandTokyoandgainedsteamagainintheearly1990swheninthemidstofthewarinBosniatheUNSecurityCouncilsetuptheInternationalCriminalTribunalfortheFormerYugoslaviaICTYandtheninthewakeofthegenocideinRwandatheInternationalCriminalTribunalforRwandaICTRTheSecurityCouncilgavebothtribunalsthemandatetoprosecutewarcrimescrimesagainsthumanityandgenocidewiththeexpectationthattheywouldtargetthemostseniorpoliticalandmilitaryleadersTheearlydayswerehardgoingIttookayeartofindachiefprosecutorfortheICTYandatfirstevensupportivegovernmentscontributedonlysmallamountstothecourtsbudgetsOtherstateswereobstructionistThegovernmentsofCroatiaandSerbiaallegingbiasrefusedtoturnoverwarcrimessuspectstotheICTYorshareinformationwithittheyrelentedonlywhencooperationbecameapreconditionformembershipintheEuropeanUnionNATOoriginallyrefusedtocarryouttheICTYscallstoarrestindicteesinBosniaforfearofendangeringitsforcesinthecountrySerbianPresidentSlobodanMilosevicmanagedtodragouthistrialforyearsmakingtheICTYseempowerlessinthefaceofhisdefianceTheworkproceededslowlytheICTYhandeddownitsfirstsentencein1996theICTRin1998BynowhowevertheICTYandtheICTRhavehelddozensoftrialsincludingagainstseniorpoliticalleaderssuchasMilosevicandRadovanKaradzicthepresidentofRepublikaSrpskaandtopmilitaryofficialssuchasThonesteBagosoraofRwandaTheICTYhassentenced64defendantsandacquitted12andthetrialsofanotherthreedozenareonitsdocketithasalsotransferreddefendantsandevidencetolocalcourtsinBosniaTheICTRhassentenced46defendantsandacquittedeightandthetrialsoftwodozenmoreareonitsdocketThetwotribunalshavesignificantlydevelopedinternationalcriminaljurisprudenceandtheyhavedeeplyinfluencedthetrainingifnotthebehaviorofmilitaryofficersworldwideTheyhavecontributedalthoughperhapsonlymodestlytostabilityinseveralcountriesTheICTYhasnotalleviateddeepseatedanimositiesinBosniabutitcanclaimsomecreditforbringingameasureofreconciliationtoBosniaCroatiaandSerbiaTheICTRhasproducedanauthoritativehistoricalaccountoftheRwandangenocideTheICTYhastriggeredthedevelopmentofaspecializedwarcrimeschamberintheBosniancourtsandtheICTRhasinspiredthewidespreaduseinRwandaofthetraditionalgacacacourtsystemtodealwithhundredsofthousandsoflowerlevelperpetratorsIn1998aUNsponsoreddiplomaticconferenceinRomeadoptedtheRomeStatutecreatingthefirstpermanentinternationalcriminalinstitutionTheICCwastaskedwithinvestigatingandprosecutingwarcrimescrimesagainsthumanityandactsofgenocidecommittedontheterritoriesofitsmemberstatesorbytheirnationalsorwheneveraskedbytheUNSecurityCouncilItwouldnotlookbacktopastinjusticesitwouldhavethepowertogoaftercrimescommittedatorafteritscreationAnditwouldactonlywhennationalcourtswithjurisdictionoverthesecrimeswereunableorunwillingtodosothemselvesmeaningwhengovernmentslackedthenecessarysubstantivelaworlegalinfrastructureorwhentheywereshieldingculpritsfromresponsibilityICCbecamearealityafterthe60thsignatorytotheRomeStatuteratifiedthetreatyinJuly2002justfouryearsaftertheRomeconferenceChinaRussiaandtheUnitedStateshavechosennottojoinitforinstanceforfearthatitmightonedaytakeaimattheirownnationalsWashingtonhasslowlybeensofteningitspositionbutitremainswaryEarlierthisyearinanunprecedentedshowofsupportforthecourtitvotedfortheSecurityCouncilsreferraloftheLibyasituationIn2005ithadabstainedfromvotingontheSudanreferralregardingatrocitiescommittedinDarfurButpartlyattheinsistenceoftheUSgovernmentthereferralstipulatedthatthenationalsofstatesthathavenotratifiedtheRomeStatutedonotfallwithinthejurisdictionoftheICCTheideawastoprotectthemfromprosecutionbytheICCiftheyeverweretobe
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