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PSY240H5 Chapter Notes -Cingulate Cortex, Cardiovascular Disease, Sympathetic Nervous System

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Ayesha Khan

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Stress & Health, 8 th
March 2012
What is Stress?
oDefining Stress
Psychological/cognitive components
Cognitive appraisal (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)
oPrimary appraisal (irrelevant, good, stressful)
oSecondary appraisal
Coping assessment
Stress: Mind-Body Connection
oDoes cognitive appraisal impact physiology?
Example study: psychological health responses to 9/11
terrorist attacks
N: 2729 (no. of population)
9-14 days post attacks and follow up 1,2,3 years
Outcome measures= physician diagnosed diseases
Able to generalize findings
Acute stress reactions to 9/11 predicted:
A 53% increased incidence of cardiovascular
diseases ailments across the following 3 years
Found that the location didn’t matter, people in
Ohio had stressful effects, didn’t have to be in New
York City
oLimbic System
Cognitive appraisal triggers a physiological reaction in
your brain
Main components:
Amygdala (fear)
Cingulate gyrus
Hippocampus (memory, recognition, stores
episodic memory)
Amygdala synthesizes emotion and senses
Stress: Physiological Components
oThreat appraisal triggers acute activation in your body
oCatecholamine’s hypothalamus pituitary gland adrenal
gland cortisol immune activation
oCortisol helps regulate the glucose production (when needed to
run away from a situation, run far or calm you down)
oIf you don’t have the right amount of cortisol to elevate your
immune system, you have autoimmune diseases*
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