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Canada (161,538)
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SOC100H5 (536)
Jayne Baker (154)
Chapter 10

SOC100H5 Chapter 10: Chapter 10
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC100H5
Professor
Jayne Baker
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC100 Hadia Saeed CHAPTER 10 – RELIGION AND EDUCATION • Religion o Canadians expect that religion can help deal with a restricted range of issues o Other institutions - medicine, criminal justice, education - have grown in importance whereas religious authority importance has declines o Religion used to be the main purveyor of knowledge and most important agent of socialization apart from the family but now the education system has taken that role o Only 44% of Canadians are satisfied with the education system ▪ Many believe there is lack of discipline and respect, low academic performance, concern of equal opportunity and employability of students • Approaches to the sociology of religion o Durkheim’s Functionalist Approach ▪ Collective effervescence – feeling part of something bigger than ourselves ▪ This is why many Canadians watch the Stanley Cup playoffs or Olympic hockey games ▪ Many people see the Stanley Cup playoffs as a religious event ▪ Collective Conscious – common sentiments and values that people share as a result of living together • Causes us to distinguish the secular everyday world of the profane from the religious transcendent world of the sacred ▪ Profane – refers to secular everyday world ▪ Sacred – refers to the religious transcendent world ▪ We designate certain items to symbolize the scared called totems • Rituals are practices that we invent to connect us with the sacred ▪ The effect of religion and rituals is to reinforce social solidarity – rituals heighten our experience of group belonging, increases respect, and strengthens beliefs • In Durkheim’s terms, the Stanley Cup playoffs share features with religious rituals • There is proof in how suicide rates dip on the days of the Stanley cup as well as 2 days preceding it just as they do during Super Bowl weekend, Christmas, and other collective celebrations • Suicide rates in Montreal are lower when the Canadiens are in the playoffs as compared to when they're not ▪ Patterns are consistent with Durkheim's theory of suicide – predict a lower suicide rate when social solidarity increases o Feminist and Conflict Theory ▪ Criticism of Functionalist theory: • Overemphasizes religions role in maintaining social cohesion – religion often incites social conflict SOC100 Hadia Saeed • Ignores that when religion increases social cohesion, it reinforces social inequality ▪ Religion and social inequality – over generations, the leadership of the world religions became ‘routinized’ • Routinization of Charisma  Weber’s term for the transformation of divine enlightenment into a permanent feature of everyday life o Involves turning religious inspiration into a stable social institution with defined roles o Typically makes religions less responsive o the needs of ordinary people and supports inequalities and injustices ▪ Religion and subordination of women • Marx stressed how religion tranquilizes the underprivileged into accepting their lot in life • He called religion the ‘opium of the people’ – a way to escape from reality and take the pain of life away but also makes us vulnerable to the power of the state – makes us subdued to the power of the state • Many religions place women in subordinate positions ▪ Religion and inequality of sexual orientation and class • Many religions have inequality in sexual orientation • Homosexuality is quite tolerated in Buddhism, it is looked not tolerates in Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Judaism (except in liberal areas) • Religions typically support class inequality – the scriptures and teachings of many religions explain how social inequality is inevitable and has a reason to exist ▪ Religion and social conflict • Church – a bureaucratic religious organization that has accommodated itself to maintain stream society and culture • Church authorities often support forms of inequality but there are religiously inspired protests that come from below • Many movements such as the Social Gospel movement were associated with improving things for the ordinary people • Religion can promote social conflict o Symbolic Interactionism – Weber and Social Change ▪ Weber stressed how religion can contribute to social change ▪ Focused on worldly significance that people attach to religious ideas • Rise, Decline, and Revival of Religion o Secularization ▪ Standard of living in medieval and early modern Europe was awfully low – average age as 35 years old and forces of nature were unpredictable – magic was also popular SOC100 Hadia Saeed ▪ Material conditions improved and belief in magic, astrology, and witchcraft lost ground ▪ The churches wanted to eliminate any other religion and establish a Christian monopoly over spiritual life ▪ Church succeeded in its efforts and Christian
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