Textbook Notes (367,907)
Canada (161,488)
Sociology (1,511)
SOC100H5 (536)
Jayne Baker (154)
Chapter 5

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Jayne Baker

Chapter 5  What some people consider normal, some people consider deviant and vice versa  People commit deviant acts only when they break a norm and cause others to react negatively  Crime: deviance that is against the law  Law: a norm stipulated and enforced by the government  Informal Punishment: face to face, mild, not involving the judicial system  Formal Punishment: judicial system penalizing someone for breaking the law  Victimless crimes: no victim is reported (i.e drug use, prostitution  Self Report Survey: respondents are asked to report their involvement in criminal activities  To be officially identified as a criminal, and individual must first be observed and justify action, arrested, have a preliminary hearing, an arraignment and a trial  Victimization Surveys: survey in which people are asked if they’ve been a victim of crime. These surveys provide less reliable data about offenders  Canada’s crime rate has been falling recently o A growing number of well trained troops o People in Canada are getting older and the population of young people is decreasing o Unemployment grew o Legalization of abortion  Criminal Profiles o Age and Gender: 80% of criminal court cases are males, women account for mostly prostitution and shop lifting. Most crime is committed by 15-24 year olds o Race: a lot of Aboriginal people get arrested  Street Crimes: Usually committed by people in lower class, including arson, break and enter, assault  White-Collar Crimes: Usually committed by high status people in the course of work, embezzlement, fraud, copyright infringement Symbolic Interactionist  Learning Deviance is the idea that becoming a habitual deviant or criminal is a learning process that occurs in a social context and it was established by Howard S. Becker’s study of marijuana users and three main steps: o Learning to smoke in a way that produced real effects o Learning to recognize the affects and connect them with drug use o Learning to enjoy the perceived sensation  The relevant availability of different types of deviants and criminals influences the type of deviant or criminal role a delinquent youth learns  Labelling Theory: holds that deviance results from the response of the deviants actions and others who then label the rule breaker a deviant  People charged with similar delinquent acts, if one is from a divorced home, he will be punished more severely because of labelling  Labelling process acted as a self fulfilling prophecy Functionalist  Direct their attention to the social dysfunctions that lead to deviant behaviour  Functionalist thinking began when Durkheim made the c
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