Textbook Notes (381,202)
CA (168,393)
UTM (8,009)
SOC (1,561)
SOC100H5 (547)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

7 Pages
149 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC100H5
Professor
Suzanne Casimiro

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Chapter Three: Culture
What is culture?
Defn: refers to the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and the material objects that
together shape a peoples way of life
Includes our thoughts, actions and possessions
Nonmaterial culture: ideas created by members of society
Material culture: physical things created by society
Culture shock: personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
oPeople tend to view their way of life as natural
oPeople could experience this when they immigrate to/visit another country
Every animal around the world behaves the same because they are driven by
instinct or biological programming which cant be controlled
Only humans rely on culture rather than on instinct to create a way of life and to
ensure survival
Culture and Human Intelligence
Earth is estimated to be 4.5 billion years old
Primates have the largest brains relative to body size of all living creatures
12 million years ago, humans were set apart from great apes
3 million years ago, humans started to walk upright and created a way of
life(hunting, using fire and weapons, simple clothing)
250 000 years ago, our own species , Homo sapiens, thinking person (latin)
12 000 years ago, birth of civilization- humans no longer lived by biological
instincts but by more efficient survival scheme: changing the natural environment
to benefit themselves
Culture, Nation, State, and Society
culture: refers to the ideas, values and artifacts that make up shared way of
life
nation: refer to political entity- state or country; also refers to people who
share a culture, ancestry and history
state: political entity in a territory with designated borders
society: organized interaction of people within a nation, state or other
boundary who share a culture
How many cultures?
7000 languages in the world = many distinct cultures
Number of languages spoken in world declining roughly half now each spoken by
fewer than 10 000 people
Causes of declining language use- electronic communication, international
migration, explain global economy
www.notesolution.com
The Elements of Culture
Cultures vary but have common elements like symbols, language, values and norms
Symbols
Defn: anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a
culture
oEx: whistle, flashing lights, fist raised in air
Language
Hellen Keller- born blind and deaf
Anne Mansfield Sullivan (teacher)- used sign language to help Keller
Language: system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another;
key to the world of culture
Humans created sounds and alphabets to express different languages
Even writing rules in different languages differ around the world
Not only allows communication, is also key to cultural transmission: process by
which one generation passes culture to the next
Bill 101- regulates use of English in quebec and made French only official language
of the province- was attempt to preserve Quebecois culture
People usually passed on culture through speech
o5000 years ago, writing and reading were invented
Language sets humans apart as the only creatures that are self-conscious, aware of
our limitations and ultimate mortality
Does Language Shape Reality?
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf (anthropologists)- specialized in linguistic
studies and noted that each language has words/ expressions with no precise
counterparts in other languages
All languages fuse symbols with distinctive emotions
Thus, multilingual people can show a single idea often feels different when spoken
in a different language
oEx. Jokes not the same if they are translated from one language to another
Sapir- Whorf hypothesis: states that people perceive the world through the cultural
lens of language
Using different symbol systems, people experience distinct worlds, not merely the
same world with different labels attached
New theory however argues that language does not determine reality
oEx. Children understand the idea of family before they learn the word
oAdults can imagine new ideas or things before naming them
Values and Beliefs
Values: culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable,
good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
oStandards that people who share a culture use to make choice about how to
live
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter Three: Culture What is culture? Defn: refers to the ways of thinking, ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a peoples way of life Includes our thoughts, actions and possessions Nonmaterial culture: ideas created by members of society Material culture: physical things created by society Culture shock: personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life o People tend to view their way of life as natural o People could experience this when they immigrate tovisit another country Every animal around the world behaves the same because they are driven by instinct or biological programming which cant be controlled Only humans rely on culture rather than on instinct to create a way of life and to ensure survival Culture and Human Intelligence Earth is estimated to be 4.5 billion years old Primates have the largest brains relative to body size of all living creatures 12 million years ago, humans were set apart from great apes 3 million years ago, humans started to walk upright and created a way of life(hunting, using fire and weapons, simple clothing) 250 000 years ago, our own species , Homo sapiens, thinking person (latin) 12 000 years ago, birth of civilization- humans no longer lived by biological instincts but by more efficient survival scheme: changing the natural environment to benefit themselves Culture, Nation, State, and Society culture: refers to the ideas, values and artifacts that make up shared way of life nation: refer to political entity- state or country; also refers to people who share a culture, ancestry and history state: political entity in a territory with designated borders society: organized interaction of people within a nation, state or other boundary who share a culture How many cultures? 7000 languages in the world = many distinct cultures Number of languages spoken in world declining roughly half now each spoken by fewer than 10 000 people Causes of declining language use- electronic communication, international migration, explain global economy www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit