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Canada (158,402)
Sociology (1,471)
SOC100H5 (498)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Suzanne Casimiro

Chapter Nine: Deviance What is Deviance? Defn: recognized violation of cultural norms Crime: violation of societys formally enacted criminal law Most familiar examples of nonconformity are negative instances of rule breaking What deviant actionsattitudes (-+) have in common is some element of difference that caused us to to think of another person as an outsider Social Control Defn: attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behaviour Informal process Criminal justice system: formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law How society defines deviance, who is branded as deviant, and what people decide to do about deviance all have to do with the way society is organized The Biological Context A century ago, most people understood human behaviour to be result of biological instincts Early interest in criminality focused on biological causes Used physical characteristics to identify criminals Concluded that genetic factors and environmental factors were strong predictors of adult crime and violence Personality Factors Psychological explanations of deviance focus on abnormality in individual personalities Think that personality is shaped primarily by social experience Deviance therefore is a result of unsuccessful socialization The Social Foundations of Deviance While we view deviance as the free choice or personal failing of individuals, all behaviour is shaped by society 1. Deviance varies according to cultural norms No thoughtaction is inherently deviant; it becomes deviant only in relation to particular norms Values and behavioural standards are different What is deviant or even criminal is not uniform throughout different places 2. People become deviant as others define them that way Everyone violates cultural norms at some point Depends on how others perceive, define and respond to it 3. Both norms and the way in which people define rule breaking involve social power www.notesolution.com
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