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Canada (158,054)
Sociology (1,464)
SOC219H5 (35)
Chapter 1


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nicole Myers

SOC219-CHAPTER1-CANADIANPOLICEANDPOLICINGPOLICY,POST9/11 - Prior to the terrorist attack in New York on 9/11/2001, the academic narrative on public policing argued that the public police in most western societies were in institutional decline-- because neo-liberal initiatives (aggressions) was diminishing government payments and limit responsibilities for public services like policing - despite continuing demand, public policing in the decade before the attacks had become increasingly, rationalized, responsibilized, privatized, diversified and pluralized - government spending restraints and concerns about rapidly growing policing costs and expanding policing commitments dramatically limited police growth while encouraging the expansion of other forms of private, community and self- policing - this chapter: - examines the key macro- level policy drivers of canadian policing since 9/11 - discusses their impact on current police policy and practice in Canada - explores emerging policy issues PoliceandPolicingPolicyinCanada - policing in this article refers to a broad set of administrative and coercive activities that are designed to maintain public order, safety and security and can be engaged in by a variety of public and private agencies - the police are a government agency, authorized by law and public and political consent to provide a variety of policing services-- most central is the enforcement of law and order - “policy” refers to a planed course of action intended to influence and determine specific institutional outcomes or practices - policies in most cases are formerly written as an institutional or organizational response to a set of external or internal circumstances or pressures - policies can be proactivein the sense that they are intended to start a preferred or desired police response or practice (e.g minority recruitment) - policies can also be reactivein the sense that they are ex post facto (subsequently) attempts to reflect and incorporate a change in existing practice - a semi- autonomous (semi- independent) relationship between political governance and internal police policy development suggested that police policy- making is often the result of a negotiated external and internal political process - there are occasions where political or public pressure results in the development of new or adjusted policing policies and practices (e.g community policing, police response to domestic violence) - a variety of relations between policing policy and police practices can be observed - policy analysis examines the broad external policy environment of public policing as it produces changes in internal strategic or operational policies and practice - while the federal government is responsible for changes to the Criminal Code and uses the RCMP in a national policing policy capacity-- the basic governance responsibility for all non-federal policing rests with provincial and municipal governments - therefore Canadian policing is sometimes the result of a federally led national policy planning process - the basic operational policies that govern the structure, organization and delivery of police services in Canada are essentially standardized through a common set of legal powers and procedural rules (e.g criminal code) - canadian policing has evolved an institutional culture where policing policies and procedures are often exchanged and the best practices are shared - as a result of this most police services have similar operational policies, regulations, standards and operating procedures for most aspects of routine police work - although not all police services are performed in identical ways, there is a significant degree of uniformity (similarity) in Canadian policing policy - when we compare the general strategic nature and direction of policing policy and practices in canada (e.g community policing)- we can see that it is remarkably similar to general International (countries) policing policy trends and developments - the challenge for developing policing policy in canada is to resist the tendency to overlook unique/ different national or local policing contexts before adopting generic policy responses - ex.canadian “use of force” policies, technologies and training have been largely imported from the United States without much modification for our canadian cultural and sociological context-- sometimes with unfortunate consequences - THEREFORE, we must recognize that canada has its own distinctive history, culture and politics that should affect the way police policy issues are perceived and addressed **reviewBOX1.2**--arecanadianthingsthatshouldbeconsideredwhenmakingcanadianpolicy Post9/11POlicyDriversofCanadianPolicing - Canadian policing over the last 10 years has been shaped by many of the same global forces that are influencing policing and security policy and practices everywhere in the Western world - below are some of these global pressures that are being translated at the national and local levels in canadian policing GlobalizationandCrime - a global market economy, fast and common communications systems, and increased mobility are creating new possibilities for both traditional and new criminal and political threats to domestically policed local order and security - as a result, globalization and the process and technologies that go along with it are changing not only what the police do but also how they do it - globalization complicates and expands the threat of traditional crimes by introducing new non- local or externally linked actors and products into locally policed environments - nationally and federally, this has meant that global or internationally organized crime has become a bigger priority for both the federal government and the RCMP capacities - the RCMP has in the last 10 years made global organized crime one of its five key operational priorities and its devoting more of its resources to expanding its own international policing capacity through enhanced intelligence and international policing partnerships - the globalization of crime has also affected municipal and local policing in Canada - because an increasing amount of “local”crime is not local in origin and often has global roots and connections, municipal police in canada must now increasingly respond to crimes and criminals with international and local linkages, such as; - transnational smuggling networks, - budding homegrown terrorist cells, - cross- border drug and human smuggling rings - online global cybercrime groups - multinational fraud - and money laundering - these crimes have only recently become municipal police concerns and in varying degrees are a shared responsibility with the federal RCMP - the federal RCMP have a leadership role in crime areas of mutual interest, such as: - organized crime - drug crimes, - border and port security, - financial crimes - national security - cybercrime - because of the shared local and federal nature of these crimes, federal and municipal policing interests often overlap and require some kind of operating relationships and collaborative or joint response - federal municipal police relationships vary by location, enforcement issues, political context and interpersonal and institutional history, resulting in fragmented, sometimes competitive and often inconsistent police responses PolicingGlobal-LocalTerrorism -RCMPPriority2:national security and the threat of terrorism remain top priorities for Canadians - the RCMP will: - detect, disrupt/ prevent and investigate terrorist criminal activity in Canada and abroad - ensure border integrity - and working with a number of canadian police agencies and federal departments, prepare a counter- radicalization strategy for the entire canadian law enforcement and security community - the globally linked domestic terrorist event of 9/11 changed forever the Canadian public perception that terrorism was a limited and primarily foreign phenomenon - while external and domestic terrorism clearly existed in canada before 9/11, as the Air India terrorist attack revealed, the threat of terrorism was viewed by governments and police as a relatively minor and low policing priority - the mishandled Air India investigation reveals that Canadian police and security at that time were clearly caught off- guard and were unprepared about how to prevent or indeed investigate such an event - however the 9/11 attack and the subsequent aggressive US government response inspired the canadian federal government and the RCMP into developing canada’s first national security policy and led to the creation of an impressive new national policing and security assemblage - For Canadian police, adding security policing responsibilities to conventional crime control is a significant new development - policing crime is definable and limited by law and results in public and legally framed police responses, such as a referral, warning, charge or arrest - security policing as a policing style is more anticipatory, proactive and preventative, as police must reorient their operations from responding to real events or actions to trying to predict their occurrence and prevent them from happening, effectively moving from ‘probable cause’ to ‘possible cause’ - in theory the RCMP alone are responsible for the law enforcement aspects of national security - role confusion and conflict are evident n reports on the Air India Investigation - a national security policy has also made the relationship of federal RCMP to other provincial and municipal police services in canada more important, as it makes the RCMP the lead police agency in the development of a nationally integrated policing and security response - Despite extra federal funding for RCMP security policing, there has been little or no funding for RCMP security policing thee has been little or no funding allocated to municipal policing to cover the costs of their national security policing responsibilities Politicization:ThePoliticsofPost-9/11Policing - the post 9/11 politics of public security and public safety are in part related to the development of the new threats of global organized crime and domestic terrorism and the emergence of a more supportive political environment for public policing in canada - while overall crime rates may be decreasing and the threat of terrorism remains low relative to that in other countries, the federal conservative government has made ‘law and order’ and ‘national security’ hot- button public policy issues - concentrating primarily on: creating more punitive laws, expanding minimum sentences, and building new prisons, the way against crime and criminals has also meant more federal and provincial funding support for more police on the streets - the politicization of public policing has occurred even more directly than at the G- 20 meeting - police themselves are quick to reject any ‘political’ involvement or any interference in the management of policing - increasingly Canadian police unions and police leaders are becoming involved in local and federal party politics by either publicly supporting candidates who are perceived to be supportive of police interests or running themselves for public office Box1.4-PolicingtheTorontoG-20 - this event was a post 9/11 example of both the politicization and the securitization of canadian public policing and public safety - controlling to prevent external terrorist attacks on 20 world leaders meeting in toronto, the Canadian government spent $1 billion, primarily on public policing, to demonstrate to the world Canada’s capacity to guarantee public order, safety and security - more than 10 000 police officers from various police agencies worked together with the RCMP and the Toronto police to provide the political leaders meeting in Toronto with a high degree of personal safety - public safety and public order were translated in practice into a public security event and providing security to political elites was a policing priority - this required the aggressive policing of a largely peaceful ‘public’ - the resulting shocking policing images of thousands of heavily armed and armored riot police, firing rubber bullets and tear gas at largely peaceful demonstrators, surrounding groups and forcefully ‘kettling’ them for hors and then aggressively using mass arrest and special purpose detention centers as ways of managing protesters, were for most canadians inconsisten
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